Ecological Footprint

My ecological footprint is 11.8 hectares. I compared my footprint to Kevin and Ashley. Kevin’s footprint was 7.05 hectares and Ashley’s was 11.43 hectares. The ten actions that currently increase the size of my footprint are:

  • My SUV
  • Spending more than an hour on the computer and/or watching TV per day
  • Brand new clothes
  • My garbage
  • Number of rooms per person
  • Travelling with my family in my car
  • Land used for recreation
  • Flush the toilet every time
  • Shower 3-6 minutes
  • Family washes the car every 3rd week

The five actions I will try and change are buying brand new clothes, reducing my garbage, travelling with my family in my car, flushing the toilet every time, spending more than an hour on the computer and/or watching TV per day. I chose to not buy as much brand-new clothes because I bought a lot during Christmas and spring break and I think I can cut back on the clothes I buy. It is reasonable to re-use some of my older clothes. I chose to reduce my garbage because it is easy for me to measure. I am the one in my family that takes out the garbage and recycling, so I can continuously monitor my waste habits. I chose to change the amount of time I spend travelling with my family in my car because my friend offered to let me carpool with him to school. I am going to let the “yellow mellow” because me and my sister no longer share a bathroom, so she won’t be flushing the toilet when I don’t. The last thing I will change is spending more than an hour on technology per day. I chose this one because I need to spend more time on my In-Depth (drawing comics) which doesn’t involve technology. I will reduce the amount of clothes I buy by wearing the same thing multiple times per week. I will reduce my garbage by eating less snacks with wrappers and more snacks that come in one big container. I will carpool with my friend and take the bus to school in order to reduce the time travelling with my family in my car. I will only flush the toilet every second time I go number one, instead of every time. Lastly, I will spend more time on In-Depth to reduce my technology usage.

One change that was easy for me to make was wearing the same thing every day. I planned out what I was going to wear for the week on Sunday, so that I could assure I was getting the most out of my clothes. Another change that was easy to make was letting the “yellow mellow”. It was simple to just not flush the toilet every time I used it and didn’t require a lot of effort. A change that was difficult to make was taking the bus. The bus comes very early in the morning which means that I have to get up early. I eventually got used to it though. Another change that was difficult to make was reducing my garbage. A lot of the snacks I usually take to school come in wrappers, so it was difficult to change my habits and find things that come in containers. I decided to start eating more nuts and bread that comes in one big package. One obstacle I encountered was finding time to wash my clothes. Since I was repeating the clothes I wore, that meant that I needed to wash them more. This extra washing would not be good for the environment. I had to find the perfect time when I needed to stop repeating clothes and wash them. Another obstacle I encountered was not watching a lot of TV. Watching TV right after school was a habit that I had to change. Instead of watching TV, I would start homework earlier, eat a snack, or play basketball. A step I plan to take in the future is to find alternative foods to eat that aren’t individually wrapped. Another step I plan to take is travrlling with my family. I can not only carpool with my friends to school, but I can also carpool other places that I may go to in the summer, such as the basketball court.

Hamilton DOL

A: Character Development

“History Has Its Eyes on You” takes place before “Yorktown” and after “Guns and Ships”. In the song, George Washington tells Alexander Hamilton about his first failed battle command experience. Washington explains to Hamilton that he has no control over the outcomes of battle, and history is watching they are doing. This song advances the plot by giving Washington a chance to speak to Hamilton and give him advice before Hamilton leads his first battle. Washington gives Hamilton this advice because both of them are about to enter the Siege of Yorktown. Washington has a lot of experience with leading battles while Hamilton has none, so this song allows Hamilton to gain some wisdom from Washington, before going into battle. Washington and Hamilton are the mainwashington-hamilton characters of this song because the song is a conversation between the two of them. Both characters want to be victorious after the Siege of Yorktown, and both fear making mistakes. However, Washington and Hamilton have very different backgrounds. Washington has lead successful battle, and unsuccessful battles. One unsuccessful battle that he has lead was the Battle of the Great Meadows, which Washington references in the song when he says, “I lead my men straight into massacre, I witnessed their deaths first hand,”. Washington surrendered this battle the French forces, and he does not want to see a similar situation happen against the British in Yorktown. Hamilton doesn’t have much experience in battle as he grew up in a poor area called St. Croix in the Caribbean. These different backgrounds create an opportunity for Washington to share some knowledge with Hamilton.

 

B: Connections to Historical Elements

At the beginning of the song, Washington says, “I was younger than you are now when I was given my first command. I lead my men straight into massacre,”. In this line, Washington isn’t exactly correct. Washington’s first command was actually successful and is known as the Battle of Jumonville Glen. In this battle, Washington lead his British forcesbattle-of-jumonville-glen into an attack on French-Canadian soldiers. The British killed the French commander, Joseph Coulon de Villiers. Although this attack was successful, the French retaliated and ambushed a British fort called Fort Necessity. This fort was poorly built by George Washington, which made the ambush easier for the French. The fort was in range of far musket fire and was subject to flooding. This caused many of Washington’s men to abandon him, while some of the remaining men died. We can see that Washington values these men who fought and died for him when he says, “I made every mistake, and felt the shame rise in me,”.  At the time of this battle, Washington and the British feared the French and Native Americans, which lead to the French and Indian War. “History Has Its Eyes on You” also connects to the “Collective identity is constructed and can change over time” Big Idea. The song talks a lot about how people are watching what’s going on in the American Revolution. The title of the song is one example of this, with another being when Washington says, “You have no control: who lives, who dies, who tells your story”. These people that are watching the American Revolution play out will tell the story of these events and create a collective identity for America during the revolution.

 

C: Thematic and Personal Connections

Something that if find particularly interesting about this song is how George Washington opens up to Hamilton about his past struggles. I would think that the best time to talk about how you lost your first battle and many of your men died, would not be right before a battle, but this is exactly what Washington did. Washington was supposed to be this fearless commander who would lead the Americans to victory. Instead, in this song he shows some of his flaws in order to offer some advice to Hamilton. The mentor-student relationship Washington and Hamilton have is a very strong one, and that relationship is showcased in this song. This relationship is one of the main themes of not just the song, but the entire play. One line that displays this theme is, “and felt shame rise in me, and even now I lie awake”. This line is said by George Washington at the beginning of the song. The line highlights how Washington is comfortable describing his darkest days with Hamilton. The friendship that Washington and Hamilton have iswasington-hamilton essential to this song and is touched upon a lot in the rest of the story. Another line that is essential to the story so far is, “You have no control: who lives, who dies, who tells your story”. This is an important line in the story because Hamilton is constantly trying to improve his story. He moves to New York and tries to work his way up the ranks in the American government. The Siege of Yorktown is Hamilton’s chance to gain a lot of popularity, but Washington reminds him that his legacy is not up to him. The line, “who lives, who dies, who tells your story” is the last song in the play and ties together one theme of the story, which is that you can’t control your own legacy. The third line that is essential to the song is, “History has its eyes on you”. This line is important because people are watching everything that is going on in Hamilton’s world. These people are writing down what Hamilton does, and that evidence is being used as pieces of history. In this way, history is watching everything that Hamilton does, and that is how we are able to watch/listen to Hamilton.

In-Depth Post #6

In-Depth Night is fast approaching, and I am getting ready to showcase my learning. I meet with my mentor, Davinder, and we discussed my progress. Davinder brought some professional comic panels to show me different ways of storytelling through comics. These panels were really helpful with the creation of my own comic book. I showed Davinder the first few pages of my comic, and he gave me some tips on how to edit them and move forward. Davinder showed me a way to arrange the panels on my page so that the big moments of the page are made more impactful. Davinder said that the last panel on the page should be an important one, that makes the reader want to flip and keep reading. I am really taking this into consideration while moving forward with my comic.

There have been some recent challenges with my in-depth. As the year is coming to a close, things are starting to get more hectic. Leadership and cultural events are happening, new projects are getting introduced, and I adventure trips are in full swing. With all this going on, I am having trouble finding time to work on in-depth. I definitely do not want to spend the last week before In-Depth Night scrambling to get together a learning centre, but at this pace, that’s where I’m going to be. Now that my leadership event is over, I’m hoping that once my adventure trip is done, I will have more time to spend on in-depth so that I’m not waiting until the last minute.

Even though I am a bit behind on creating my comic book, I have planned out what my learning centre is going to look like. I am going to have a poster board with some of my drawings and draft comic panels. When people come by my centre, I will describe to them my learning process and show them some of my work. I will also have my finished comic book on display for people to flip through. I may possibly demonstrate how I create a panel of my comic book, but this may take too long and be boring for the guests as it usually takes me a couple hours just to finish one page.

As the final stretch approaches, I am ready to showcase my learning on In-Depth Night.

 

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Hamilton Big Ideas

Emerging ideas and ideologies profoundly influence societies and events

“Will they know you rewrote the game?”

This passage exemplifies the big idea because the line is saying that Hamilton “rewrote the game” with his contributions to America. Hamilton was instrumental in making America a democracy, which was something that was not common in Europe. Hamilton rewrote the way countries were usually run.

 

Disparities in power alter the balance of relationship between individuals and between societies

“How does a bastard, orphan, son of a whore and a

Scotsman, dropped in the middle of a forgotten

Spot in the Caribbean by providence, impoverished, in squalor

Grow up to be a hero and a scholar?”

This passage exemplifies the big idea because the passage is saying that Hamilton was not a person that should be a hero, based on how he grew up. Since Hamilton didn’t grow up with a lot of power, he had a different relationship with people than he would if he grew up with power. If Hamilton grew up with power, this passage would be very different, and nobody would really be surprised that Hamilton became a hero.

 

Collective identity is constructed and can change over time

“Well, the word got around, they said, ‘This kid is insane, man’

Took up a collection just to send him to the mainland

‘Get your education, don’t forget from whence you came, and

The world’s gonna know your name. What’s your name, man?’”

This passage exemplifies the big idea because the passage shows how people of the time weren’t expecting Hamilton to have his great writing ability. Usually, the people with good writing ability would be of high social status, unlike Hamilton. Hamilton helped to change the collective identity of America by showing that not everybody in government needs to come from a high social status.

 

The Physical environment influences the nature of political, social, and economic change

“In New York you can

Be a new man.”

This passage exemplifies the big idea because the passage says that by changing locations, you can change the way you live. When Hamilton comes to New York, he changes his social status, as well as the economic status of America.

Jacques Cartier Independent Investigation

Historical Significance:

The inquiry question I posed for this investigation was, “How important were Cartier’s contributions to the creation of New France?”. Jacques Cartier was a French explorer who claimed what is now called Canada for France. Cartier was instrumental in the growth of European knowledge of Canada and its people. On Cartier’s first voyage, he was sent by King Francis I to find a passage to the Pacific Ocean around Newfoundland. This lead Cartier to explore the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where he came in contact with the Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the Haudenosaunee Confederacy). Cartier caused some tension when he planted a cross to claim the land for France. Understandably, the Iroquoians were not too happy with Cartier claiming their land. To make matters worse, Cartier kidnapped the two sons of the Iroquoian captain and he was going to take them back to France. Eventually, the captain agreed that his sons could be taken, as long as they returned with European goods. When the Europeans returned, the natives “…began to run away and would not come near, until our two [guides] had spoken to them…” (excerpt from Jacques Cartier’s journal). Cartier then gave the Iroquoians some small European goods. The trade of goods was a common theme in encounters between the Europeans and Iroquoians. The Iroquoians would trade fur pelts, and Cartier and the Europeans would bring tools and liquor. This constant trading made the Iroquoians the dominant “Canadian” trade force for around 75 years. The Iroquois trade cartier-and-iroquoisdominance is important because years later, Samuel de Champlain reached an agreement with the Wendat Confederacy to help defeat the Iroquois. In return, the Wendat Confederacy helped Champlain to establish a vast trade network and create New France.

 

Cause and Consequence:

There were a lot of factors that caused Jacques Cartier to sail to Canada, and many events that occurred because of his sail. Jacques Cartier was commissioned by King Francis I to try and find a west passage to Asia. The Asian market was wealthy thanks to cotton and silk found in India and China respectively. Cartier was tasked to look for the passage near Newfoundland, which had been discovered by John Cabot. This quest for a passage to Asia led Cartier to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Chaleur Bay, where he met the Iroquois and Mi’kmaq. These encounters gave the Europeans a chance to see the life of the aboriginal peoples of Canada, but more importantly to Cartier, they got to see the goods that they have. Once Cartier returned to France, he spoke to the king about the riches that he saw in this new land called Canada. This caused the King to allow Cartier to return to Canada with more men and ships. These voyages to Canada contributed very heavily to the creation of New France. The same way John Cabot’s exploration around Canada helped Cartier with his exploration, Cartier’s exploration helped with Samuel de Champlain’s colonization. Cartier travelled the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River, which cartier_first_voyage_map_1was where New France started. Cartier also grew the fur trade for the Iroquois Confederacy. One of the reasons New France succeeded was because the Europeans made a deal with the Wendat Confederacy to take down the Iroquois. Jacques Cartier’s exploration throughout Canada happened for these reasons among others, and the consequences of Cartier’s exploration contributed to the creation of New France.

 

            Historical Perspective:

Jacques Carter’s contributions to the creation of New France were viewed in a positive and negative way at the time. King Francis I liked what Jacques Cartier had found on his voyages. This was because Cartier told of great riches in Canada, which is what the king wanted Cartier to find in the first place. Cartier thought that he had found Asia, and when he reported that back to his king, the king was very pleased. King Francis I and Jacques Cartier thought they had succeeded in their mission to find Asia, even though we know now that they didn’t. We know that the king was pleased with Cartier because he sent Cartier back to Canada with more ships, and more men. Although Cartier was hailed as a hero in France, he wasn’t a hero to all. When Cartier first arrived in Iroquois and Mi’kmaq settlements, someiroquois-hiawatha-6people were eager to see the Frenchmen as they saw an opportunity to trade. Others were frightened by the appearance of Cartier and his men as shown in the journal excerpt from earlier. The natives got more upset with the Europeans as time went on. Cartier claimed Iroquoian land as French, refusing to eat Iroquoian food, and kidnapping two Iroquoians. These acts were understandably very disrespectful to the Iroquois Confederacy. Cartier’s actions were heroic to some, but despicable to others.

 

            Social Studies Inquiry Process:

            After conducting research, I am able to draw some conclusions about my inquiry question: “How important were Cartier’s contributions to the creation of New France?”. Over Jacques Cartier’s three voyages to Canada, he was able to expand the European’s knowledge of the “new world”.  Cartier had travelled around Newfoundland, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the St. Lawrence River. These areas proved vital in the creation of New France, whether as land for settlements or trade routes. Cartier also expanded communication and trade with the aboriginal peoples of Canada. Although many aboriginal peoples were already familiar with the concept of European trade, Cartier had gone into areas that no European had gone before. Some people that he met had never had any contact with Europeans. This expansion of trade resulted in the Iroquois becoming the dominant fur-trading-library-of-congress-770x470trade confederacy. Part of the success of New France was due to the Europeans aiding the Wendat Confederacy in defeating the Iroquois. Without Cartier giving the Iroquois trading power, the Wendat Confederacy may not have needed the Samuel de Champlain’s help. With what Cartier had done in Canada, he had generated interest from the French in colonizing Canada. This interest eventually led to Samuel de Champlain and his quest to form New France. Jacques Cartier had increased the knowledge of Canada, grew the fur trade, and generated interest in colonizing Canada. These accomplishments by Cartier were essential to the creation of New France.

 

Sources:

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/jacques-cartier/

Crossroads A Meeting of Nations (Second Edition)

http://www.cwjefferys.ca/champlain-s-fight-with-the-iroquois-1609

http://nativeamericannetroots.net/diary/711

https://www.encyclopedia.com/people/history/canadian-history-biographies/jacques-cartier

http://www.canadahistoryproject.ca/1663/1663-03-cartier.html

DOL: #3, Independent Canadian Inquiry

 

 

In-Depth Post #5

During spring break, I used some free time I had to work on my in-depth project. I met with my mentor, Davinder, to talk about my progress and how to move forward. In our meeting I showed Davinder some comic panels that I drew. He gave me some pointers about which perspective types I want to use on certain panels of my comics. For example, Davinder said that he likes to use the first panel as a wide shot that “sets the scene” and lets the reader know where everything is. For the next panel, Davinder told me to do a close up of the main focus of the comic page. This is a good way to let the reader know what the focus of the next page(s) will be. Even though we had started transitioning from learning how to draw to learning how to tell stories, I still needed some help with some aspects of drawing including hair, hands, and feet. To improve on these skills, I showed Davinder a picture of an athlete that I drew. Davinder was able to give me tips on how to improve the areas that I struggled with. For our next meeting, Davinder asked me to draw a few more comic panels. I decided that these next panels that I will draw will be the start of my comic book that I will present on in-depth night.

One kind of learning opportunity that Davinder provides me to expose me to new learning is by showing me his drawing book. This exposes me to new learning by showing me new techniques that other artists use to practice and improve their drawing skills. Another opportunity that my mentor provides which exposes me to new learning is taking knowledge from other areas besides drawing and applying that knowledge to my drawing skills. For example, we talk about human anatomy which helps me with drawing humans. We also talk about techniques used in filming movies because a lot of those techniques apply to comics.

One kind of learning opportunity that reinforces new learning is looking at other comics. Seeing techniques that I use being used in other comics helps to show the popular uses of these techniques. Another opportunity that reinforces new learning is looking for online sources that talk about similar concepts that Davinder and I talk about. Doing this can help show what I learn in mentor meetings. One kind of opportunity that can accelerate learning is seeking review from non-artists. Seeing what the average reader thinks of my drawings can help me figure out what areas I need to work more on, and what areas I have done a good job of. Another opportunity that can accelerate learning is doing more research on drawing skills, other than meeting with my mentor.

When Davinder and I get together, we talk about previous work that I did. This wasn’t the case at our first meetings because I didn’t have much work to show, but now as I am able to create more drawings I am able to show Davinder more of my work. We usually spend an hour editing and talking about my work. After that, we spend another fifteen to thirty minutes looking at other areas to focus on. Something that is going well in my mentoring relationship is our ability to quickly progress. We are able to learn at the pace I outlined in my in-depth proposal. We are moving at this pace because we both understand the goals that I want to achieve, and when I want to achieve them. During our meetings, I am learning lots about Davinder including different projects he’s working on such as his comic series. I also learned about characters he likes to draw, especially ones in Marvel movies. Davinder has learned about TALONS, and why I am part of it.

The next few weeks are going to be a lot of work, but it will hopefully have a good payoff at in-depth night

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17th Century Letter

Dear Father,

It is I, Williamus Jenkins. Life in London has gotten worse. You were right to leave. People here are dying by the thousands. There is a disease out there, infecting those around me. All I can do is try to isolate myself, but I’m not sure how much longer I will last. The doctors are trying to cure the ill by bloodletting and burning special herbs, but these techniques are proving inefficient. I’ve never seen anything that bloodletting couldn’t cure. There are many suspicions of where this powerful disease came from. Some say that there is poison in the water. I don’t know if that’s true, but I’m not taking any chances. Even if I don’t bathe for several days, I won’t be the worst looking person on the streets of London. I myself have some suspicions of where this dreadful disease came from. I blame the cats. They have a wicked look in their eyes and I feel they have nefarious motives. Many people seem to agree with me and we are working together to get rid of these scornful animals. Hopefully our efforts will prove effective. During this time of death in England, I worry about who our king really is. King James claims to be appointed by God but does nothing when the people of his land are dying. With the power and goodness of God, the king should act, and not let his people die. The king has great power, and with that power comes responsibility. There are only two reasons why the king would let his people die like this: God is not all good, or the king is not appointed by god. There is much confusion among the streets of London. I hope Jamestown is much better than here.

Love,

Williamus Jenkins

Wheels of Revolution DOL

the-wheel-of-the-american-revolution

2. The American Revolution follows a very similar trajectory as the French Revolution. They both start out because the King spent a lot of money on a war. Before the American Revolution, the King of Britain spent a lot on the French and Indian War. Before the French Revolution, the King of France spent a lot of money on the American Revolution. Due to the spending of the Kings, hefty taxes were imposed on each country. These taxes drove the public to protest and riot against their Kings. To fight their rulers, both the French, and the Americans had a technological advancement. In the American Revolution, the colonies received new models of muskets from the French, so they could fight the British. A technological change in the French Revolution was the invention of the guillotine, which was invented in the same year that the French Revolution started. In the French Revolution, the guillotine was used in a lot of executions, including the execution of the French king, Louis XVI. These technological advancements helped to create a political change in both revolutions. The muskets in the American Revolution helped the colonies defeat Britain and turn America into an independent country. The guillotine was used to execute the French king, Louis XVI. This execution helped to turn France into a republic. The American Revolution is similar to the French Revolution because of the economic, social, technological, and political changes.

3. At the end of the American Revolution, there was justice for America as they were able to gain independence and break free of British rule. America became a democracy and elected their first president, George Washington. While there was justice for America, Britain suffered a few losses. Britain spent a lot of money fighting the Americans, so Britain’s national debt increased greatly after the revolution. Taxes had to be raised due to this debt. The American Revolution also impacted Britain’s trade because ships were destroyed or captured in battles. Although this revolution hurt Britain, it wasn’t enough to stop Britain from fighting in the French Revolution soon after.

In-Depth Post #4

Over the past few weeks, I have continued working on In-Depth. I have continued working with my mentor, Davinder, and am making good progress. I started to focus less on my drawing skills, and more on my story telling skills. This is what Davinder believes is more important when it comes to drawing comic books, and I agree with him. To get started with storytelling, Davinder showed me some different comic books, including his own. We looked at how the angle in each panel, impacted the way we see characters. For example, when artists want to show a strong, powerful character, they will usually use a low angle so that the reader is looking up at the character. Looking up at someone makes them appear taller, and usually more powerful. When an artist wants to show a weak character, they will usually go with a high angle so that the reader is looking down on the character. For the next few weeks, I am going to continue creating comic panels, and working on the angles I use.

The most difficult mentoring challenge so far has been discussing what the In-Depth project means. I gave Davinder an overview of where I wanted my In-Depth project to end up, but I should’ve explained more about what In-Depth is. At the end of our last meeting, Davinder asked me to send him a “project outline” of In-Depth, so he could get a better understanding of what my teacher wanted from me. I sent him the link to Ms. Mulder’s week one blog post and talked to him more about In-Depth and TALONS in general.

Something that is working well is our ability to coordinate meetings. There was a bit of a communication issue at the beginning, but now we have found a regular meeting place and time. Our meetings run smoothly, and we are able to cover a lot in a couple hours. One thing that could be working better though is me finding time to draw. Even though I’m ahead of schedule with what I’m learning, I am behind schedule with the amount of drawings I’ve done. With all the other school work, I have not been able to find a lot of time to draw. To make sure this works better, I can spend time during spring break catching up on my drawings.

Also, I just heard back from Davinder about the criminal record check. Davinder teaches grade nine in Delta, and he has been trying to get a copy of his record check to give to me. Unfortunately, he’s had some trouble doing that and it looks like he might have to get a new one.

I’m excited to continue my learning of comic book drawing!

Sourcing a Significant Personal Object

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  1. Inquiry Question: What is the story of the Cordial Cup soccer tournament medal?
  2. Source: The medal is a primary source because I was at the tournament. Even though the medal wasn’t made at the Cordial Cup tournament, the crest at the front of the medal was attached during the tournament. The medal wasn’t officially a Cordial Cup medal until the crest was attached. The medal was made by a German award manufacturing company called Uwe Frank Awards. It was made between late 2014 to early 2015.
  3. Context: When the medal was created, the Cordial Cup was just beginning. The Cordial Cup is a children’s soccer tournament, and these medals were given out to all the participants. This influenced the design of the medal.
  4. Description: Something I notice that is important about the medal is that it has the year of the tournament on it, so people who have the medal will remember when they got it. I can’t explain how many medals were made, because I don’t know the exact number of participants that year.
  5. Inferences about perspective: The manufacturer made this medal because they were a sponsor of the Cordial Cup. The people that the medal was made for (the audience) was the participants of the Cordial Cup. Since the creator of the medal knew they were making it for a soccer tournament, they added a picture of someone kicking a soccer ball on the front.
  6. Inferences about inquiry question: By examining this source, I learned more about the Cordial Cup because I went to the website printed on the medal. Examining the medal helped me learn more about the story of it because I was able to find when and where the medal was made. This confirms what I already knew about the approximate time and country the medal was made in, but examining my source also extended my knowledge of it. I now know the name of the company that the medal was made by. Even though I know more about the medal now than I did before this blog post, I would still like to know the total number of medals made. By knowing this, I can know the number of kids who participated in the tournament, which is something I’ve wanted to know for a while.