Cause and Consequence

VE Day was on May 8, 1945. This was caused by the critical pressure on Germany from the allies from the east and west. Britain had pressured Germany from the West and the Russians from the East. By April, the German Army was nearly destroyed. On April 30, 1945, Hitler committed suicide. This led to Germany’s surrender to the allies. After Crowd Celebrating Victory Day in Times SquareGermany surrendered, celebrations erupted across Europe and North America. On this day, German troops laid down their arms. They did not want to be captured, as there was little hope of escape. Over 13,000 British prisoners of war were released and sent back to their home country. On VE Day, Canada moved to liberate the German held areas in the Netherlands. This pushed Canada’s view as a nation willing to help others. The victory of the allies also showed how Canada can be a helpful war ally. On March 8, 1945, the world saw the end of its worst war. VE Day was a day of celebration for many across the globe, including Canadians.

Historical Perspective

VE Day was viewed as a joyous day for Canadians. It signaled the end of the fighting that had cost 42,000 Canadians’ lives and caused injuries for tens of thousands of soldiers. Since many Canadians were in Europe, they celebrated the end of the war there. In Toronto, thousands of people were dancing in the streets. Prime Minister William Lyon

Happy Vancouver soldiers painted "Germany Kaput. Here we come Vancouver" on hearing of the end of the second World War. Members of the Seaforth Highlanders of Canada. The regiment was formed in 1910 and served overseas in both World War I and World War II. (Postmedia Files)

Happy Vancouver soldiers painted “Germany Kaput. Here we come Vancouver” on hearing of the end of the second World War. Members of the Seaforth Highlanders of Canada. (Postmedia Files)

Mackenzie King told Canadians, “You have helped rid the world of a great scourge”. For the soldiers, this was also a happy, but somber day. An Anonymous Canadian flyer said, ““I was so relieved that I myself no longer had to be destructive, that I was not too concerned about the possibility of being fired upon by the German ground installations”. At this point, Canada was ready for peace. Canada has fought at Hong Kong, Dieppe, Normandy, and the North Atlantic. There was also a debate about conscription in Canada, and the deaths in World War II were adding to the flames. Once news of German surrender had made its way to Canadians, relief was felt across the country. VE Day was a day of celebration for the end of the violence, but also a day to remember those who died so that those alive could celebrate.


Continuity and Change

The end of World War II had a great impact on Canada’s economic norms and values. Once soldiers returned home, they returned to work, married, and had children. Canadians also started to buy more things. For the first time since the Great Depression, Canadians were spending money freely. Most of what Canadians were consuming came from the United States, which alerted the economic relationship between the two countries. The return of soldiers to their9815-kiplingheights_sprawl-500x400 wives caused a baby boom, which meant that there were more people to stimulate Canada’s economy. With the increase of babies, many families moved from big cities to smaller suburbs. The new suburbs grew the transportation industry, as more freeways and railways were built. Canada’s economy also grew because the economies of many other countries were destroyed. Since there was little fighting in Canada, industries did not suffer much damage because of the war. Europe especially needed Canada’s exports to help their homeless and rebuild their economy. After VE Day, Canada’s economy grew as there were more people returning and coming into the country. The need for Canada’s exports after the destruction of other economies also helped stimulate Canada’s.

Historical Significance

VE Day contributed to Canada’s social autonomy. Although Canada was an independent nation before World War II, the war unified the country. The fight against a common enemy brought together the young country. Canada was helpful in the allies fight against the axis powers. Canada’s role in the Italian, Normandy, and Air Campaigns had a big impact on the War. Once the war was won, Canada’s national pride and confidence grew. Canadians felt less irrelevant and part of a bigger world. Although Canada had a smaller population and army than the bigger nations,canadacartoon they were still on the winning side of World War II. Canada’s national identity was also strengthened when they joined the newly formed United Nations. As Canada’s pride, relevance, economy, and population grew, so did their autonomy. Canada was starting to separate itself from the British. Although Canada helped Britain during the war, Canada’s importance signaled that they had strength in their own right. After the war ended, Canada had a new place in the global power structure through their newfound military and economical strength. Canada’s economy would continue to grow from VE Day to today.





Graphing Project

I decided to create the Toronto Raptors logo using graphs on Desmos. I decided to create this logo because it involved circle equations, quadratic, square root, linear, and trig functions. I used circle equations to create the outside of the ball, as well as the lower vertical curves on the basketball. I changed the radius and the multiplier on the x/y variables to match the shape. I used quadratic equations to create the horizontal and vertical-middle basketball curves because they fit the small curve shape. I compressed, vertically and horizontally translated, and reflected the graph. I used square root functions to create the vertical-upper basketball curves because it fit the medium curves. I horizontally and vertically translated the graph. I used a trig function for one of the horizontal-middle curves because the sin function matched the light curve of the ball. I also needed a new equation. Finally, I used linear equations for the claw marks on the ball. The claws required a series of straight lines, hence why I used a linear equation. The major challenge I encountered was completing the claw marks. There were so many of them and it took me a long time to complete them. Copying and pasting equations helped me speed it up. I asked other students for input on how to manipulate my graph to make it match. My strategy at the end was to use the sliders to find the values and input them into the variables. I didn’t use this strategy at the beginning, so I had to change all my equations and delete the sliders at the end. Through this project I learned how transform functions with translations, expressions/compressions, and reflections through variables in equations.

Wayne Gretzky Speech

He’s the NHL’s all-time scoring leader, four-time Stanley Cup champion, and he starred in a cartoon where he fought crime with Michael Jordan. Wayne Gretzky is also the author of 99: Stories of the Game. In his book, Gretzky shares stories of his time in the NHL, as well as the stories of other greats of the game. Gretzky’s book reveals that respect, passion, and unity are what it means to be Canadian.

Wayne Gretzky demonstrated all three of these qualities on and off the ice. As a child, it was Gretzky’s dream to play professional hockey, but he didn’t just let it remain a dream. Gretzky constantly practiced, watched, and thought about hockey. His passion for the game allowed his dream to become reality, which continues to inspire Canadians who also share a passion for the game. His success was driven by his passion for perseverance. Gretzky said “If I had three points, I wanted four. I always played full throttle.”. It’s difficult to constantly work your hardest every day if you don’t have the passion that Gretzky had.  Gretzky’s passion got him to the NHL, but his respect for his opponents and the game is what kept him there. With Gretzky being so good, the only way the opposition knew how to defend him was to give him cheap shots and body checks in an attempt to injure or slow him down. To any normal player, this would get frustrating and throw them off their game. But not Gretzky. Gretzky respected the physical tactics used by the other teams and took it as a challenge to improve himself. It’s difficult to be constantly knocked down by guys double your size and keep getting back up. And not only to get back up, but to still respect the guy who knocked you down. This is what separated him from other superstars. This is what made him a role model to every hockey player. But to Gretzky, it was never just about himself. Gretzky was the ultimate team player, in hockey and in life. You don’t get the most assists in NHL history by only caring about yourself. Gretzky showed he cared for his mentor, Gordie Howe, when he called him the greatest even though all the numbers show that Gretzky was the better player. Gretzky also cared deeply about his family. When deciding on a team to sign with, Gretzky made sure to include his family on every decision. The hockey team was just as important as the school system for Gretzky and his family. He valued unity over individuality.

These qualities that Gretzky demonstrated are all part of Canada’s identity. Canadians are viewed as respectful and kind, it’s one of our most popular stereotypes. We’re seen as being passionate about things such as social justice and sports. Canadians are also seen as being unified under the Canadian flag and the values it symbolizes, the same for which cannot be said about many other countries. One of the main reasons why Canada is seen as having these qualities is because Wayne Gretzky, one of the most famous and influential Canadians ever, demonstrated all three of them. Through 99: Stories of the Game, Wayne Gretzky shows how he influenced the positive Canadian Identity. A positive identity that not many countries are lucky enough to have.

Is John A. MacDonald a Symbol of Leadership or Racism?

John A. Macdonald has long been regarded as one of the most important and damaging figures in Canadian history, but do his negative aspects really outweigh the positives? No matter which side you are on, it is undeniable that Macdonald has had a profound impact on Canada. Although he has contributed greatly to the creation of Canada, some say Macdonald has done more harm than good because of his contribution to the creation of residential schools. However, due to his achievement of forming Canada peacefully and his accordance with the common values of the time, John A. Macdonald’s name and likeness should remain in the public sphere.

Unlike the United States’ independence, Canada’s separation from Britain was far more peaceful. A big part of this peaceful independence was John A. Macdonald. With so many different needs among Canada’s population, it was a difficult task to try to get the provinces of Canada to come together. As the leader of the independence movement, Macdonald did a great job of “[getting] Canadians to co-operate” (Hopper). If Canada remained divided on the issue of confederation, it could have led to more tension and possible conflict between provinces. Macdonald was so important that “had there been no Macdonald there would today be no Canada” (Gwyn). Macdonald’s willingness to compromise was one of the main reasons why the provinces were willing to co-operate. The co-operation and unity of Canadians made it easier to present Britain with a plan for peaceful Canadian independence. Macdonald’s integral contributions to the peaceful formation of Canada is cause for him to be remembered and celebrated.

Nevertheless, many of John A. Macdonald’s fiercest critics say his views and policies were racist and he was the reason that residential schools exist. In fact, Macdonald’s views and policies were “pervasive and unchallenged” at the time and pinning all the blame on him is inaccurate (Ballingall). In fact, to look again the United States, Abraham “Lincoln believed that America ‘was and always should be a white man’s country’” (Foner). Yet, Lincoln is still considered an American hero for his positive contributions to the country. Macdonald and Lincoln, as well as most people of their time, “didn’t know the things we know” now about equality between races (Hopper). As the world becomes more connected, we are able to learn more about other types of people and not be left to our unchanging prejudices, like those in the 19th century. John A. Macdonald’s lack of knowledge about racial equality was actually common among most Canadians of the time. Putting all the blame of Canada’s racist past on Macdonald is doing him a disservice.

In short, John A. Macdonald was a big part of the formation of Canada, but many people have a problem with some of the views he held. Even though he led the Canadian confederation, some say his racist views are the reason to remove him from the public eye. Yet, because of his contribution to Canadian history and conformity to society’s values at the time, John A. Macdonald should remain in the public sphere. After all, the leader of Canada’s independence movement should be celebrated, and not left among the thousands of other names in history textbooks.


1) Foner, Eric. “Why Did Lincoln Move So Slowly to Abolish Slavery? Because He Was a Racist, This Book Argues.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 23 June 2017,

2) Gwyn, Richard J. “Canada’s Father Figure” Canada’s History, 6 January 2015, file:///Users/JD2003/Downloads/Academic%20Controversy%20-%20JAM%20Articles.pdf

3) Ballingall, Alex. “Sir John A. Macdonald: Architect of Genocide or Canada’s Founding Father?” The Toronto Star, 25 August 2017, file:///Users/JD2003/Downloads/Academic%20Controversy%20-%20JAM%20Articles.pdf

4) Hopper, Tristain. “Sure, John A. Macdonald was a racist, colonizer and misogynist – but so were most Canadians back then” National Post, 10 January 2015 file:///Users/JD2003/Downloads/Academic%20Controversy%20-%20JAM%20Articles.pdf

In-Depth Post #6

Over the past four weeks, I have used my guide for the process of logo making to actually make logos. Before I made logos, I showed my guide for the process of logo making to my mentor. Together we edited the guide to make it more accurate. For example, I added a brainstorming note in the market research phase. Now that my guide was complete, I could start using it to design logos. During my meeting with my mentor, we threw out some ideas for potential logos. We started with a fictional athletic wear company called Victory Athletics. It was helpful to see how he generated ideas before editing them on Illustrator. We also came up with some concepts for the TALONS logo. We started with the T and then fleshed out ideas from there. I am excited to continue working on my designs.

Concepts are a big part of logo design. When creating a logo, generating concepts is helpful so that you don’t lose the main idea of a logo while editing it. When creating a logo for a company, it is important to recognize the concepts that the company wants the logo to demonstrate. When brainstorming logo ideas for Victory Athletics with my mentor, we first looked at concepts (we called them the ‘message’). We discussed the concepts of luxury and innovation. This influenced the drafts of the logo. Luxury is commonly associated with the colours black, gold, and silver, which I tried to use in the logo. Innovation influenced the design because it makes sense that an innovative company would have a creative logo that makes you think. For the TALONS logo, the main concept that I thought of was autonomous. It was difficult to come up with a draft that fit that concept, but hopefully, I will create a good draft or come up with a new concept for TALONS.

Alternatives have also played a part in my in-depth journey so far. After my latest meeting with my mentor, I told him that in our next meeting, I would show him some of the new logos that I worked on. My mentor offered me the alternative of expanding more on the logos that I was already working on, such as Victory Athletics and TALONS. This alternative means that I will ultimately create fewer logos, but the logos I do create will be more refined. This goes against my original goal of creating thirty logos within the month of May, but goals grow and change as my journey goes along. I feel this alternative will ultimately help me create the best logos I possibly can.

I have also altered my ideas for my learning centre in the past month. I will still demonstrate many of my logos, as well as the branding package(s) I completed. I will also add a flipbook that shows the process I underwent in order to create one specific logo. As the audience flips through the book, they will see my ideas become more and more fleshed out. This will make my learning centre more interactive, as well as add more of the logo making process, rather than just the finished process. The main thing I hope the audience learns from my learning centre is how much time, research, and editing goes into creating a good logo.

99: Stories of the Game – Check In

Quote 1
“I got to skate out onto the ice I had imagined when I was a kid in the backyard.” (40)
1. Something I find interesting about this quote is how hockey was part of Wayne Gretzky’s life from his childhood. The ice that Gretzky is talking about isn’t even in Toronto, where he grew up. The arena he’s skating in is in Detroit. This shows how much Gretzky loves the sport of hockey, not just his team. I can relate this to my life because when I watch hockey games on TV, I like to imagine what it would be like to be in that arena (not necessarily playing hockey, but just watching in the arena).
2. This quote reveals that passion and determination are Canadian values. Wayne Gretzky had a goal to play professional hockey from when he was a child. He continuously practiced in his backyard and on the ice in order to accomplish his goal. Gretzky’s passion for the game allowed him to eventually play in the NHL. These values are common amongst many NHL players as well as other Canadians who have dreams they want to accomplish. The quote shows that having ambition and working hard to prove yourself are qualities that are important to be a Canadian. Gretzky is seen as one of the most iconic Canadians ever, and his passion for hockey and determination to be the greatest is something that many Canadians aspire to emulate.
Quote 2
“It’s simply that Wayne’s not going to bring his wife into the final decision and choice of cities and schools and their lives and all that in the middle of the night.” (89)
1. Something I find interesting about this quote is how close Wayne Gretzky was to becoming a Vancouver Canuck. In this quote, Mike Barnett (Gretzky’s agent) is talking to the VP of the Vancouver Canucks about their offer for Gretzky to play in Vancouver. The Canucks called Barnett in the middle of the night and wanted a response to their offer immediately. This quote shows that Wayne values his family more than hockey, even though hockey was his love since he was a kid. Gretzky wouldn’t accept any offers without discussing it with his wife and looking at schools and his family life. This relates to a Canadian value we discussed in class, unity.
2. This quote reveals that Canadians value family and unity. Even though Gretzky wanted to play in Vancouver, he was not willing to make a decision without consulting his family. He cares about his family more than hockey, even though hockey was a part of his life from his early childhood. Gretzky demonstrates unity through his family, team, and country. This unity is similar to the unity many Canadians feel, especially when it comes to Canada vs the United States. Whether it’s sports or politics, many Canadians feel a sense of unity under Canada’s flag. This quote shows that unity is a big part of the Canadian identity, and Wayne Gretzky shows that through his decisions and his game.
Quote 3
“But that mutual dislike lasted only as long as we were playing against each other. Today, a lot of those guys would do anything for one another to help out with a charity. That’s the beauty of sport.” (53)
1. Something I find interesting is how players’ feelings for each other drastically changed after they stopped playing against each other. Many former competitors are now friends after they stopped playing. Watching hockey now, there are many players who I could not see being friends off the ice, but it is a very real possibility. This quote shows that sports are not everything, and relationships are more important. I can relate this quote to my own life because when I played soccer, there were players who I didn’t like to play against. Once those players came on my team, we actually became good friends. I can see how it would be the same in professional sports.
2. This quote shows that Canadians value relationships more than sport. Even though hockey players play hard and hate the other team during the game, once the game is over, there is mutual respect between competitors. That’s the reason why teams line up and shake hands at the end of a playoff series. This quote shows that sport is only one part of life. Relationships and kindness are important to Canadian identity, even though Canadians have a stereotype of loving hockey. The Canadian influence in hockey is shown through the respect players show other players once the skates are off.
Quote 4
“I was on the ground staring up at him and he had his fist over my face. He said, ‘Don’t move, I’m not going to hit you.’.” (72)
1. Something I find interesting about this quote is how even when players are fighting, they still may not actually want to hurt the other player. In this quote, Wayne Gretzky is talking about a fight he was in with a player named Bob Murray. It was Murray’s job to agitate Gretzky, and it worked. Even though they both dropped the gloves, Murray still didn’t hit Gretzky. There is a lot of respect between competitors in the NHL, even when they are supposed to be fighting each other. This quote relates to that Canadian value of kindness that we talked about in class.
2. This quote shows that Canadians value respect and kindness and don’t want to be involved in violence unless they have to. Bob Murray (who is Canadian) didn’t want to hurt Gretzky, he just wanted to take him out of the game in a quiet way. This is similar to how Canada doesn’t get involved in a lot of international situations that require violence unless they absolutely need to. Canada has a ‘peace-first’ mindset diplomatically, the same way Bob Murray and Wayne Gretzky do in hockey. This quote shows that peace is part of the Canadian identity today.
Quote 5
“If I had three points, I wanted four. I always played full-throttle no matter what the score was.” (93)
1. Something I find interesting about this quote is how hard Wayne Gretzky played, no matter what the score was. Even when he was playing a good game, he wanted to play a great game. This quote shows what separated Gretzky from other players. A great game for other players would only be a good game for him. He was never satisfied and always wanted to play better. That’s why he has the most points in NHL history. I can relate this to how I always try to do better on my assignments. Even if I get a good mark, I always try to see what I could have done better in order to improve for next time.
2. This quote reveals that hard work is a core Canadian value. Gretzky’s hard work and determination made him one of the most accomplished and dominant athletes ever. Gretzky is someone Canadians have looked up to for a long time, and one of the most important lessons he taught Canadians was that hard work can accomplish dreams. This passage shows that Canadians value hard work and the determination Gretzky has demonstrated is part of the Canadian identity.
The overall theme that I can take away from my reading so far is that passion for your work often makes your work better. If Gretzky wasn’t the dedicated athlete that he was, he wouldn’t have been the greatest of all time. Gretzky’s passion for the game allowed him to continuously practice and work to get to the NHL and succeed. Gretzky’s love for his family and fans is what makes him more than just a great player, but a great person and a great Canadian. I can apply this to my own life by making sure that I’m around people and doing things that I am passionate about. Being passionate about my work can make it better and also make me a better person.

In-Depth Post #5

It has been a while since the last in-depth blog post, and I have completed a lot since then. I met with my mentor for the last time before moving on from the research phase of in-depth. Since the meeting, I have created a guide for the process of logo making. I learned about these steps through my meetings with my mentor, as well as online research. An important part of logo design that I didn’t know about before I started in-depth is the discovery meeting. Outlining the brand identity and preferred typefaces/colours are crucial to a successful logo that will stand the test of time. Creating the logo process guide also gave me a chance to work with the vector graphics editor I will be using for my logos, Inkscape. It took me a little while to figure out how to create and merge specific shapes, but I now have a decent understanding of the program. Now that my logo process guide is complete, I will begin designing logos.

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During our meeting, my mentor and I had discussions while using the different hats from Edward De Bono’s, How to Have a Beautiful Mind. One example of this is our discussion of evaluating logos.

Me: So, do you have a rubric for when you evaluate your logos?

Mentor: No, not really a rubric. I guess it’s just the client, their needs. As long as it’s what the client asked for and they’re happy with it, the logo is good.

Me: What about you and your team? Do you take your opinions into account?

Mentor: Yeah, how we feel about it matters too. It still has to look good to us if we’re going to present it to [the client]. I guess the rubric would be: does it look good to us? And does it fit the client’s needs?

In this discussion, I start out by using the blue hat to define the purpose of the discussion. My mentor’s first answer involves him using the black hat because he is talking about how he critiques his logos. My mentor’s answer to the second question involves him using the red hat because he is talking about the importance of his feelings about the logo, as well as his team’s feelings. The white hat is also used in this answer when he talks about the logo fitting the client’s needs. The client’s needs are outlined on a questionnaire that his company gives to the client before they begin designing the logo. Since the client’s needs are information, my mentor is using the white hat.

My mentor also used the yellow hat when I talked more about math in logo design, which I did in my last meeting as well.

Me: How often is math useful in logo design and compared to just using your eyes?

Mentor: Well, stuff like grids can be useful, depending on the logo. Our eyes like symmetry so it makes sense that using symmetry in a logo would work well. But sometimes, you just need to look at it, you know? Like Google. People noticed their logo isn’t symmetrical, but if you make it symmetrical, it looks off.

My mentor used the yellow hat when he was discussing why symmetry should work in a logo. These hats will also be helpful in logo critiquing discussions.

I am excited to use my logo guide to help create my logos!

Is Canada a Post-National State?

Canada is a post-national state because Canada is too large and diverse to have one core identity. With Canada accepting as many immigrants as it does, (271,800 permanent immigrants in 2015) many cultures are introduced to the country. An example of this diversity is Toronto’s ranking as “the most diverse city in the world” in 2016 (Flack 2016). Canada’s “cheerful commitment to inclusion” (Foran 2017) means that different cultures are allowed to thrive, leading to the spread of new values, beliefs, and experiences. As more immigrants and cultures are accepted into Canada, the core identity becomes weaker and instead, there is “space for multiple identities and multiple loyalties” (Foran 2017). Furthermore, Canada is also such a large country geographically that it is difficult to find a shared identity for the whole country. For smaller countries, it is easier to find a core identity because roughly the entire country benefits from the same policies. With Canada, it’s different. In a 2016 study done by the Angus Reid Institute and CBC, Canadians were asked how satisfied they were about job opportunities in their area. The results showed that “Atlantic Canadians and Albertans, the two areas hit hardest by the oil slump, report the lowest levels of satisfaction” (Reid Institute 2016). Meanwhile, Manitobans and Quebecers were the most satisfied. This poll shows that different parts of Canada have different values and feelings about Canada, which contributes to the creation of multiple Canadian identities.  The diversity and scale of Canada make it difficult for Canadians to have one core identity. Instead, Canada has multiple smaller identities that may be shared with other countries, which makes Canada a post-national state.

In-Depth Post #4

In the past few weeks, I have continued my research on logo design while also expanding more into branding. A big part of my research came from the meeting I had with my mentor, Jeff. During the meeting, we talked about the concept of a brand identity and the factors associated with it, such as a logo, colours, fonts, and real-world applications. We also talked about more technical aspects of logo design, as I will soon be focusing more on actually creating logos. I asked Jeff what he thought about using math to create logos. Jeff said that math can be helpful when looking for symmetry in a logo but making corrections based on the eye is how he usually creates logos. Now that I know more about the technical aspects of creating logos, I can move further in my project. Over spring break, I will create a flowchart that displays the process of creating a logo. After I show this flowchart to Jeff and make any necessary corrections, I will use it to create my own logos.

During my meeting with Jeff, I used some techniques from Edward De Bono’s, How to Have a Beautiful Mind. For example, I focused on what Jeff was trying to tell me and what I was actually hearing. I probed further into the topic by asking follow-up questions.

Me: How often do you create your own fonts for your logos?

Jeff: Never. I alter existing fonts with the pen tool (in Adobe Illustrator), but I don’t create my own. It takes too much time, [his team is] too busy.

Me: But if you had the time you would like to create your own?

Jeff: Yes, but I’m not skilled enough yet. But making fonts is not necessary. […] The standard ones work just fine.

By listening to Jeff’s advice and probing further into the topic, I received important information that will make my logo creation process much easier. I also asked Jeff to explain the difference between making a simple logo and a complicated one because I was having trouble coming up with simple logo ideas.

Me: Is it more difficult to create a simple logo or a complicated one?

Jeff: I would say simple. A simple logo is more refined but still needs to get the message across. I usually create a more complicated logo at first and then strip it down until I get to the simplest form possible. But simplicity is subjective.

This discussion helped me with the skill of creating simple logos. By asking Jeff to explain this skill I was having trouble with, I now know a technique that makes creating simple logos easier.

After my most recent meeting with Jeff, I am ready to create a flowchart displaying the process of logo making. I can’t wait to start using my knowledge to create interesting logos!

R+J Act II Critical Response

Based on our readings so far, I agree that Romeo and Juliet’s relationship is one of ‘infatuated children’ engaging in ‘puppy love’. Romeo and Juliet have not known each other for long enough for their relationship to be considered ‘serious’. Before he meets Juliet, Romeo is infatuated with Rosaline. Romeo loves Rosaline so much that when she doesn’t love him back, he “is not Romeo; he’s some other where” (1.1.195). When Romeo is talking to Juliet on the balcony, Juliet is worried that the kinsmen will murder Romeo if they see him. Romeo doesn’t care because his “life were better ended by their hate, than death prorogued, wanting of [Juliet’s] love” (2.2.91). From these quotes we can see that Romeo has powerful feelings towards both Rosaline and Juliet, which suggests that he may have powerful feelings for other women in the future. These infatuations are the reason that I agree that Romeo and Juliet are engaging in ‘puppy love’.

Kulich’s argument that Romeo and Juliet should not be viewed as children is ineffective because youth is a major part of the play. Juliet’s age is brought up a number of times because “she hath not seen the change of fourteen years,” and is still too young to be a mother, even in the 14th century (1.2.9). The brash and impulsive actions of Romeo and Juliet also suggest that they are children, whether or not they are allowed to marry. Even the older adults act like children through the hatred between the Montagues and Capulets. Youth and childish behaviours are consistently brought up in the play, and not viewing Romeo and Juliet as children is ignoring one of the main motifs of the play.