The Fall of Hong Kong

The Fall of Hong Kong

A sharp humming comes to the attention of Hawaii citizens on a warm December morning, followed by the loudest sound any of them would hear in their lives, and then silence. The attack on Pearl Harbour immediately hit every newsstand across the world, but that wasn’t everything the Japanese had in store that day. On December 7th, 1941, late that morning, Empire of Japan bombed and attacked the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong, which not only consisted of Chinese units, but also units from Britain, India and Canada as well. This attack was a violation of international law, since Japan had not then waged war against Hong Kong. The Japanese had waged war against China since 1937, not butting heads with the British Crown Colony thus units from the west.

This resulted in a 17 day war known as the Fall of Hong Kong, one of the first battles in the Pacific War.

The battle first started at around 8:00am (Hong Kong time), when the Japanese bombed Kai Tak airport and started invading Hong Kong. By December 9th, the Japanese had secured Shing Mun Redoubt, the most important strategic position to Gin Drinker’s Line, where advanced units had fell back to.  Hong Kong in addition to the other countries within the British Crown Colony tried to resist the attack by the 21st, 23rd and the 38th Regiment, but were outnumbered nearly 4:1, and in addition couldn’t compare to the Japanese’s advanced war tactics. Despite not being prepared to handle the size and raw brute force of the Japanese, units did not surrender. Over the course of the 16 days, twelve massacres occurred, many of those affected being Canadians. One of the most horrifying being when the Japanese invaded a makeshift enemy hospital, and killed soldiers resting in their beds. In the end, over a fourth of the Canadians deported sacrificed their lives.

 

Significance:

Canada’s military was small and had not been adequately trained to participate in war, thus contributing little efforts to the early years of the second world war (1939) The prime minister at the time, William Lyon Mackenzie King did not want to commit Canada to battle because of this. In addition, he was weary about donating troops to the British in fear of re-igniting the country’s inner conflicts between French-Canadians and English-Canadians. Instead, he tried to implements ways that Canada could help progress the war indirectly, like growing food for and training soldiers. So when the British asked Canada for support in the Battle of Hong Kong, he assumed that the soldiers dispatched would only be there to guard post, and not engage in heavy combat. Even though Canadian allied troops knew they were extremely ill-prepared (none of them had even participated in battalion-level training exercises), they refused to stop fighting until they were all literally overrun by the enemy. The Canadians that survived the attacks became prisoners of war; many were victims to torture and starvation by their captors. However, a select few extremely notable Canadians sacrificed their lives in order to save a great number of their allies. One of these Canadians being John Osborn, who without hesitation jumped on a live grenade to shield his fellow soldiers.

 

Result:

This horrifying battle resulted in the sacrifice of many Canadians in order to keep peace in not only Hong Kong, but the entirety of Asia. Many casualties took place, but the soldier’s courage set an example to what events were needed to take place in the future to become victorious.

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/history/second-world-war/canadians-hong-konghttps://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/battle-of-hong-kong/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hong_Konghttp://hkwctc.lib.hku.hk/exhibits/show/hkwctc/documents/item/67

Trudeau vs. Laurier

justin-trudeau-wilfred-laurier

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/ns-prof-trudeau-sunny-ways-1.3280693

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electoral_history_of_Justin_Trudeau

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/sir-wilfrid-laurier/

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/justin-trudeau/

In-depth Finale

 

I can’t believe in-depth is already coming to a close. It feels like only days ago that I was presenting my project for grade nine, and here I am doing it for the last time as a grade ten. Although I am extremely excited to show what I have accomplished over the past term for in-depth, I’m also sad to know that this is the final big TALONS project I get to participate in. That being said, I’m already thinking about how much fun it’ll be coming back as an alumni, and seeing all of the to-be grade ten’s in-depths, and the new grade nines as well.

Over the course of the year, I have learned how to make melodies, how to relate notes to songs, how to manipulate the tempo of a song to convey feeling through music and not only through lyrics. I would say that this year’s in-depth is ultimately a success. I’m very pleased with how much I’ve learned in such a short amount of time, and I’m not planning on slowing down anytime soon.

For my presentation, I have decided to team up with Val. Since we’re both doing music for our in-depths, it just makes sense to make a track and present together so we have double the time on stage. In addition to the technical benefits, I’m also excited to see what she’s learned through her in-depth (and vice-versa) and how we use and apply those skills to the making of our song. However, instead of using our entire presentation time to present our song, we have decided to use half of the time (1:30) to quickly show some of the production and thinking process, hopefully to provide insight on how making music isn’t easy as it seems (I too have learned this through my in-depth), use the other half of our time to present a snippet of our song. I am hoping that I will be able to transfer some of the skills I had learned through last year’s in-depth (film production) to help us create the most time-effective and concise way of showing our process in 1:30. In addition, I will be using my previous skills of graphic design to help design an album cover and aesthetic for our song.

The song that I have written (and Val is producing) is called Cornerstone, and focuses on someone not keeping their promises and learning your self-worth. The main melody follows an this pattern (using non-traditional chord shapes):

D C# F# E – C# E D / D C# F# E – C# E C# / D C# F# E  – C# E D – D G E

[Note: Non-traditional chord shapes just means that the way I position my hand on the guitar doesn’t play a full chord/isn’t common in songs.] It’s an up-beat song with a life lesson sort of theme (if that makes any sense) and also features synthetic as well as organic (real-life) instruments.

Since this is my first song ever, I’m really nervous (but also excited) to hear what everyone thinks. Playing/performing someone else’s song in front of an audience is one thing, but sharing your emotions and being vulnerable to a large group of people, most I don’t even know, is a little big scary.

Now that I’m thinking about it, this experience is a whole whirlwind of emotions. I’m excited to make new music, nervous to share it, and ultimately sad to see my last year of TALONS pass me by so quickly. I remember being at orientation in grade nine, and now my journey is almost complete. Where did the time go?

Socials Confederation DOL

 

I, John Mercer Johnson, vouch for the confederation of the provinces within Canada. Even though the attempt to unify has failed in the past, this time it is crucial to band together as the fate of our country hangs in the balance.

I attended the Charlottetown Conference to represent New Brunswick in September 1864, in order to advocate for confederation. Confederation is important for the safety of Canada, especially New Brunswick due to our shared border with the United States. The recent progressions with the United State’s has ultimately allowed them to pursue more violent attitudes, which in turn can affect Canada’s safety as a whole. We have tried time and time again to become one, but this time confederation isn’t a preference of political inner-workings, but a time-sensitive necessity for this country’s survival. God forbid what would happen to us if they decide to seize the opportunity to pillage us for our land.

In addition to keeping our country safe, confederation allows for not just a life, but a livable one. With the joining of the provinces, we have the opportunity to construct the transcolonial railway, which will provide many jobs in itself with servicing and construction; not to mention those that will be enabled by the convenience of being able to travel cross-country will ease. Naturally, if the railway can support people it can support the act of commerce as well. With this railway, we will have the ability to spread and expose new cultures all around the country. If there’s a way to connect Canada not only through technicalities but physically, this is the way to do it.

Even though I wholeheartedly believe that confederation will do nothing but good for our country (especially given what is at risk), I only represent a small portion of my province. Sir Albert James Smith is the leader of the anti-confederates of my province, and I fear that he will silence the voices of public and ultimately tear this province apart. Fortunately, I also have many allies such as Edward Barron Chandler and Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley who will assist me in fighting for the only option we think is right, the one that allows us to thrive.

 

http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/johnson_john_mercer_9E.html

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/john-mercer-johnson/

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/new-brunswick-and-confederation/

https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/confederation/023001-4000.39-e.html

In-depth #3 // Week Five

In-depth blog post #3

Progress: Since my last post, Sam has set me up with an interview with a really experienced producer named Chris Holmes. He has produced and mixed many songs for artists high up in the industry such as Katy Perry, blink-182, and Owl City. I developed a set of questions that I was curious about and sent them to him over email. He sent back very thoughtful answers in which I have attached below.


 

Questions to Chris Holmes:

  • Do you have any tips on how you can change the mood of a song based solemnly on the tone? For example, if I have lyrics to a song that are sad, is there a way I can turn that into a party song?
  • What specific elements does a song need in order for it to stand out to you?
  • Do you ever get blocks when producing music and if so, what are some things you do to overcome them?
  • In your opinion what parts of the music making process are the most time-consuming/the most difficult?
  • Are there any specific things you would recommend I do in order to get my name out and make more connections in the field?

 

Do you have any tips on how you can change the mood of a song based solemnly on the tone? For example, if I have lyrics to a song that are sad, is there a way I can turn that into a party song?

This ia a big complicated question to answer, but the short answer is it’s quite possible.

When it comes to song writing, the chords and key you choose to use will affect the overall mood of the song far

more than the lyrics.

As an example if you were to write a song in Cmajor, you could pretty easily make a song thats decently happy just

by choosing the standard I , IV , vi , V progression.

This would involve 3 major chords and one minor in the middle.Conversely, if we did a song in C minor, that arrangement

would invert and you’d have more minor chords.

I would also argue that instrumentation plays a huge part in the mood of a song. Tempo of course matters as well.

Traditionally sad songs were always slower, while happier party songs are usually up tempo. Basically every party anthem you hear on the radio now is roughly around 128bpm.

 

What specific elements does a song need in order for it to stand out to you?

Basically breaks down into three key components:

Strong hooky melody : You need something people will sing along to and remember. That’s really the only thing that matters in the long run.

Relatable lyrics : much like the first point, the lyrics will tie a person to a song and make them feel connected to it.

Modern Production : This third one is hard to describe, but basically a well crafted arrangement with suitable song structure, and sparse but powerful production. If you listen to any Max Martin produced songs (google him if you don’t know who he is!) he always has the bare minimum tracks he can put into a song, but each sound is specifically crafted and perfect for the track.

 

Do you ever get blocks when producing music and if so, what are some things you do to overcome them?

All. The. Time. I’d say I have creative blocks

more than I don’t. For me in this period of my career it’s more about having fun and letting the art happen. I can’t really force it anymore, so a large part of my time is spent helping other people get the most out of their music. I find other creative outlets

that are non music related to reinvigorate my creative flow and makes it easier to keep moving forward.

 

In your opinion what parts of the music making process are the most time-consuming/the most difficult?

Tracking real musicians. It’s an incredibly rewarding experience, but the amount of work that goes into recording real drums as an example is kind of ridiculous. It’s very time consuming to tune a kit, set up microphones, get sounds, and then rely entirely on another person to play the parts correctly.

The second most time consuming thing is the editing/compiling portion. Putting together pieces, fixing words, adding samples to drums, tuning vocals…all this kind of stuff is very time consuming.

Are there any specific things you would recommend I do in order to get my name out and make more connections in the field?

Start making records/songs immediately, and NETWORK. The music business, regardless of where you live or what you do, is based on relationships.

The common theme among young producers is to work alone on their laptop, but you grow far more from collaboration.

Meet people, work with people, write music with other people. These are the things that will help grow your visibility

in whatever market you choose to venture into.

 

Do you have any tips you can give me as an aspiring artist in the industry?

You could basically copy and paste my answer from the question above as I think it still applies, but my biggest piece of advice would be: Understand what it is you’re trying to do and understand that it’s an incredible amount of work. I would say 90% of artists want to be “famous” without doing any work, or they assume that X person they worship didn’t work that hard to get where they are. Most successful artists spent 5-10 years grinding every day before they got to the caliber of musician/performer they needed to be to get noticed.

Social media is incredibly important as well, and knowing how to properly release music as well. In a nutshell, you have to be business minded as much as you are creative minded. People get very attached to their art, and without the wiggle room to adapt and adjust, most people simply fail.


Questions:

1. (1) What went particularly well during your mentoring sessions? Something that went well was the fact that we didn’t run out of things to talk about. My main fear for meeting with my mentor initially was that the conversation would be dry and wouldn’t flow naturally. I understand some mentor-mentee relationships lack that certain something that can make discussion interesting, but I am fortunate enough to have a mentor that I can not only relate to with general interests, but emotionally as a person. When I talk to Sam, I genuinely feel as though time is flying by and the two hours we spend discussing feels like twenty minutes.

2. (4) What logical challenges affected your communication?

  • Since my mentor lives in Montreal, there is quite a large time difference between us. To get around this, we have a predetermined time in which we can call every two weeks.
  • The distance between us also causes us to sometimes have a hard time communicating because of phone reception/connection.

3. (5) What three strategies could improve the quality of your mentoring  interactions?

  • Ideally, something that would strengthen our relationship would be the ability to meet in person and play music together. However, this is not completely realistic, but I think that knowing what music we’re each interested in and developing a more personal connection would benefit our relationship.
  • Something I could do to help improve our relationship would be working on understanding when to move on the the next topic/question. Sometimes we get so into a topic of conversation, I forget completely to ask the questions I had written out before hand. Of course it’s good to stray off into side topics because this could potentially lead to important points and ideas, but I need to work on learning how to ask to move on.
  • In addition, something that I can improve is letting Sam know that I am listening. Sometimes when I am processing information or thinking really hard about what she is saying, I get super quite and she thinks that the phone cut out. I could do saying things like “yes”, “yeah”, “right” etc. to let her know I am attentively listening.

In-depth #2

 

Between now and my last post, I have secured Samantha Landa as my mentor! She is an awesome drummer for a metal band and has experience with writing songs lyrics, composing songs, and has a lot of experience as a music-maker first hand. I am very excited to learn as much from her as I can, and know that being able to converse and work with her will be a very valuable experience and teach me many things!

How did your mentor gain their experience/expertise?

My mentor gained experience through being a part of many bands throughout her life. Each band’s synergy is different, and even though everyone contributes to the band’s success, doesn’t mean that everyone will necessarily have the exact same job as when they were in other bands (even if they’re playing the same instrument). For example, one band may write their own songs while another might hire someone to write songs for them.

What were those experiences like for your mentor?

She described her learning experiences in the field as very different to what other people have told her to learn. She urged me to try and get out to play as many shows as I could for practice, even though I was nervous about performing in front of people.

What wisdom have you gained from your mentor so far?

I’ve learned many pedantic things from my mentor, as well as more abstract ideas and concepts (wise nuggs, as Mr. Jackson would call them). One of the most valuable wise nugg that I have learned so far from my mentor is that not everything can be experienced through reading up on music theory and practicing every day in my room. Similarly to TALONS, a big part about becoming a performer and gaining confidence is by through experiential learning. As I mentioned in question 2, Sam recommended that I become as comfortable with myself as possible on stage and play as many venues as I could, especially before performing my own music. For some people performing their own music is equally as stressful as performing someone else’s, but since I want my music to connect to my personal experiences and life, I would need some practice before taking that next step.

What have you learned so far, in terms of facilitation strategies, that might contribute to your own development as a mentor?

I’ve learned that setting up a time to meet with my mentor has been very successful. I call her every second Thursday for two hours, and I come prepared with questions and notes on progress I’ve made since we last talked. I think that organization is key to being able to maintain a healthy mentor-mentee relationship. Even if there’s confusion between the two people, as long as there is communication things should be able to be sorted out. Often the reason that things are not done/don’t work out isn’t the unwillingness to do work, but instead the lack of communication between individuals.

Canadian Bio – Mike Myers (check-in)

“We shouldn’t wait to be ‘discovered.’ We should discover ourselves” (42)

This quote summarizes the idea that Canada is stereotyped as a humble country that doesn’t like to brag, yet when it wants to create a success story cannot because of the lack of social power it yields. This quote is essentially saying that it’s okay for (more so encouraging) Canadians to be conceded enough to deem ourselves successful. We as a country shouldn’t let stereotypes determine our success as individuals.

 

“Canadians love it when other countries mention Canada” (25)

This quote infers that Canadians need some sort of validation when dealing with media and society, and in a way I think that this is true. Canada is flooded with all-things american, like Canada is a huge America-themed amusement park.

 

“Not everybody has to be a striver” (39)

This quote presents the idea that in Canada it is acceptable to be a middle-class standard worker (raising the standard of living for all it’s citizens), while in America it’s all about shooting for the stars and getting as high as possible economically and socially.

 

“Of course, Canada has a national resting face” (75)

Again Myer’s refers to Canada’s stereotypical tendencies of being humble. Even though this is generally seen as a good thing that many Canadians pride themselves on, this makes me wonder that through all there references is Myers really doing good, or perpetuating the idea that we are nothing BUT steryiotypes?

 

“Canada was not longer  going to be a place where experiments in progressivism could take place for the benefit of the world” (255)

In this quote Myer’s is referring to Stephen Harper erasing all of Pierre Trudeau’s hard work as a prime minister. I’m not particularly interested in politics or have a stance on what happened back then, but I think it’s interesting how this can be related to nation vs. country. Myer’s is obviously very against Harper’s decisions as a prime minister, but he got elected for a reason so many Canadians believe in him. Canada is called a post-national state by some, but is still divided in many ways (especially politically).

 

John A. Macdonald essay – A Founder of Oppression

A Founder of Oppression

Savage, Indian, Aryan. Derogatory names used to describe indigenous people, uttered by one of Canada’s own founding fathers. John A. Macdonald was not only a creator of confederation, but was the creator of the ongoing spiral of maltreatment experienced by indigenous people today. Nonetheless, despite his list of political achievements, the horrible things he did paired with his actions being constantly justified, is more than enough evidence to have him removed from the public sphere.

Even if John A. Macdonald’s actions could be vindicated, it by no means justify the way that his legacy is handled today. There are many indigenous peoples and children having to experience the same unstoppable spiral of oppression Macdonald had created as their grandparents, almost as a sort of déjà vù: “We are still affected by racism, both systemic and violent […] Colonization didn’t happen 400 years ago; it began 400 years ago and continues today. Right now” (Dimaline,1) Dimaline states. Indigenous people aren’t asking for Macdonald to be removed from history, nor for anyone to feel guilty about something they couldn’t have controlled. They are asking for a safe environment that their children can learn in without having their perpetrator’s name scrawled across their planners and school uniforms. They are asking for the proper respect and recognition of the events he fostered instead of the glorification of his figure through statues, honorary namings of public spaces; furthermore, Dimaline says: “Let’s teach our children about Macdonald, not make them line up under his banner” (Dimaline, 3).

This being said, many people still believe that Macdonald’s actions can be set aside because of the concrete contributions he’s allocated leading to the creation of Canada as a whole. However, allowing John A. Macdonald to be presented as ‘racist on the side’ devalues the idea and weight of racism and oppression that many have faced. Even though the common values of the past aren’t comparable to ours: “Macdonald admitted that he was supporting the policy largely because he was running a country full of racists” (Hopper, 1) keeping statues of his figure erect further perpetuates the idea that someone who oppresses groups of people can be successful when they shouldn’t be. Furthermore, in order for even the simplest matters to be put to an end, it is important that we stop lauding and justifying John A. Macdonald’s actions.  Even though John A. Macdonald’s achievements are a key element of Canada’s history, he should be seen as a racist first and a founding father second.

John A. Macdonald was a founding father of Canada, but this by no means vindicates him of his actions. Despite his political achievements, his wrongdoings paired with his actions being constantly justified is plenty reason for him to be removed from the public sphere. Without action, the ongoing spiral of hate indigenous people have faced will only continue to worsen. Do we really want our future to be influenced by the past?

Canada Independent Investigation – The Fate of the Fur Trade

Note: One of the pictures on this post looks super stretched out but I can’t figure out how to fix it. It looks fine in the previews, sorry!

Inquiry question: To what extent would the fur trade been different had Ochasteguin and his people (Huron-Wendat) not won the fight against Haudenosaunee Confederacy?

 

A. Outline the focus of your inquiry and provide background knowledge. Why is this an important and significant questions to ask about the past? Provide evidence from primary and secondary sources.

The fur trade took a big role in helping shape Canada’s history, culture, and early settlements. The first European settlement in Canada was built by Samuel de Champlain and his men, which soon was to become a fur-trading centre. However, sending fur to France would have been nearly impossible without access to the St. Lawrence river. By becoming allies with the Huron-Wendat peoples and assisting them with defeating the Iroquois, Samuel de Champlain won access to the river and the ability to exclusively export beaver fur to Europe. But by choosing to side with the Huron-Wendat, New France also faced a bitter rivalry with the Iroquois, “While sleeping, I dreamed that I saw our enemies, the Iroquois, drowning in the lake near a mountain” (163, Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, 1604-1618). If the Iroquois won the battle, they would have not granted him and New France access to the St. Lawrence. Had they not gained access to the St. Lawrence, a lower amount of fur, if any at all would have reached Europe, resulting in less beaver fur in circulation and higher-costing beaver hats.

(Image source - Wikimedia commons)

(Image source – Wikimedia commons)

 

This is an important question to ask because since the fur-trade was such a major role in shaping Canada’s current values, what the result would be if New France didn’t have the ability to export furs down the St. Lawrence. At first glance beaver hats seem like an insignificant if not at all significant part of Canadian history. However hats were such a trend in England, that 3.3 million hats were made (about one person per hat). The popularity and demand grew so steeply, that within the first six decades of the century, the trend spread to new areas and beaver fur accounted for two-third of all export trades received in Portugal. The influx of profits to the French allowed them to send over more men to New France and allow permanent residents to immigrate, creating a lasting society and eventually the first Canadians.

Ethical Judgement: Is what happened right and fair by the values and standards of the time? How about from our current values and standards? Explain.

It’s hard to say whether or not what happened was right and fair by the values and standards of the time. Battling to the death for something wasn’t an uncommon practice, but it’s hard to determine whether or not having a literal ‘secret weapon’ was fair or not. There is no clear source for the terms agreed upon during the battle against the Iroquois, but since they have never dealt (or even heard of) firearms in the past, it was definitely something they weren’t expecting.

In our current society, people tend to be more civil and use the law to sort out their disagreements. Since there was no concrete written law, and crimes and their punishments could be argued more freely. There wasn’t the technology back then to prove if someone was guilty or not, so people could get away with huge crimes that people have no chance of getting away with today. That being said, it’s unfair to compare our values to theirs. But again, determining whether or not pulling out a gun in bow fight is fair is a grey-area. Hypothetically, if two groups of people were to fight to the death in this day and age, I would think that rules would be set in place deeming what would make a fair fight.

(Image source: Wikimedia commons)

Cause and Consequence: Why did your researched questions happen the way they did and what were the consequences?

The one piece of technology that helped Samuel de Champlain win the battle against the Iroquois and ultimately decide the course of Canada’s history was firearms, more specifically his arquebus. None of the First Nations had ever seen, not to mention fought against, anything of that sort. Even though the First Nation’s arrows were much more accurate, they only prepared themselves with armour made of cotton and wood, which were plenty defense against arrows but no match for the arquebus.

Image result for arquebus samuel de champlain

(Image source – canadianhistoryworkshop.wordpress.org)

By using his firearm, Samuel de Champlain was able to shoot two of men with one musket ball, one of them being the chief. The Iroquois were so shocked by the speed and seemingly effortless execution, that they soon fled the battle.

B. What conclusions can you make about your questions based on the research your conducted?

Based on my research, I can conclude that the growth of the New France settlement would have occured much slower and possibly never reached the size to allow the first Canadians to be born. The amount of income that beaver furs provided for the French was what lead to an immigration to New France, increase in settlements, and growth of the society. Without the first steps of defeating the Iroquois in battle and gaining access to the St. Lawrence, the fur trade would have never been as successful as it was, affecting Canada heavily in the future.

Primary Source: https://archive.org/stream/voyagessam00chamrich/voyagessam00chamrich_djvu.txt

Secondary source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MWdOQE459vg&t=265s

Secordary source: https://eh.net/encyclopedia/the-economic-history-of-the-fur-trade-1670-to-1870/

Secondary Source: http://plato.acadiau.ca/courses/idst/matthews/Images%20on%20p/FurTrader/ExplorerRoutes.html
Secondary Source: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/iroquois-wars/

Social Studies DOL #1 – Is Canada a ‘post national’ state?

 

1. Choose an event from Canada’s past or present (social, political, environmental, or economic) and describe / illustrate (show cause and effect) how this event influenced / influences all four of the quadrants. Provide images / primary source evidence where possible.

The Kinder Morgan oil pipeline expansion has recently affected not only the provinces directly involved, but Canada as a whole. Many Canadians (primarily British Columbians) disagreed with the construction of the pipeline, worried about the potential effects it would have on the environment if it were to leak. The NDP government in BC called for a re-consideration of the expansion given the concern. Unhappy with this decision, Alberta decided to ban the import of BC wines and shut down electricity negotiations completely, a trade that comes out to 70 million dollars a year. Along with the announcement of the BC wine import ban, Alberta encouraged it citizens to, when choosing a glass of wine from BC: “Think of your energy workers, think of your neighbors, think of our community, think about our province and maybe choose some terrific Alberta craft beer instead.” Alberta is deciding to take a stance to strengthen their provincial community instead of Canada as a whole. This heavily impacts the job market and puts tens of thousands of national jobs at risk, but also sets a heavily negative tone to the rest of the world in terms of Canada’s trade.  The president and CEO of the Canadian Chamber of Commerce says: “We’re sending a message to the rest of the world that this may not be a good place to invest,” as there has not been a Canadian national dispute this large in ages. If the division continues, Canada will lose its heavily credited sense of unity, and eventually be pitted against one another based solely on what province they are from- similarly to how the rest of Canada supposedly discriminates against citizens of Quebec after their failed attempt at independence in 1995. As Beatty continues to say, “We have to decide at this point in Canada, whether we are one country or 13?” However, more issues arose involving more social morality than economics. BC is home to many indigenous peoples and their land, and the plans for the pipeline run right through indigenous territory. This isn’t just about money anymore, but the provincial identity of BC. Indigenous chiefs and members of the community have made a website called ‘Coast Protectors’ opposing the pipeline expansion. They have collected 23 thousand signatures in an effort to protect their territories. The Kinder Morgan Pipeline has caused an uproar and has pitted provinces against each other, citizens against the government, and ultimately Canada against itself.

2. Does your event represent a step towards creating and maintaining a coherent Canadian identity, or does it move Canada more clearly in the direction of Trudeau’s discussion of a “postnational” state?

I believe that a greater effort should be made to reach a consensus in order to keep a good relationship between provincial governments. “This doesn’t look like a government that is working together.” Alberta Premier Rachel Notely says, commenting on how the issue will be taken to court as soon as possible to try and be resolved. Banning the purchase of multiple resources benefits neither end- as each province benefits from the income as well as the resource itself. The disagreement on the pipeline doesn’t only affect provinces, but separate nations within the provinces. Canada, more specifically BC, is home to many indigenous peoples and their territories, and by intruding their beliefs by building the pipeline through their territory- it is only creating more problems and division throughout Canada. I think that the event I’ve chosen has more to do with moving Canada in the direction of a postnational state- but not in a good way.

3. In your opinion, is there any value in trying to define a specific Canadian identity, or should we abandon this idea towards a more open and global idea of nationhood? Why?

Ideally I think that a more global idea of a nationhood should be strived towards, but further unifying Canada is a good way to start. It’s unreasonable to ask all of Canada to share the same opinion, political beliefs etc, but the government should not be pointing fingers at one another and starting national fights. A nation should be able to function despite different opinions and points of view, no matter how black and white the situation may seem. “Those who stand for public office ask for the privilege of being able to lead,” says Beatty. This includes leading everyone within Canada at once and not selecting a specific class to cater to. All citizens should be considered when making decisions, not only the working class, not only the provinces at hand, but Canada as a whole. This includes all nations within Canada and all citizens with different beliefs. Allowing all points of views to be held into account fosters a place of belonging and a safe environment where anyone can thrive.

 

http://calgaryherald.com/news/politics/alberta-government-guarantees-20-years-of-oil-for-keystone-xl-pipeline

http://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/the-current-for-thursday-february-8-2017-1.4524990/is-canada-one-country-or-13-trudeau-must-end-the-alberta-b-c-pipeline-fight-says-business-leader-1.4524995

http://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/the-current-for-february-5-2018-1.4519869/as-alberta-and-b-c-go-to-war-over-kinder-morgan-oil-pipeline-politicians-are-worried-about-jobs-their-own-1.4519948