Is Canada a Nation?

Due to the arguments presented in the two provided articles and my own personal research, I believe Canada to be a country. Since Canada is made up of many different nations, we cannot cohesively agree on any specific ideals or values. Our identity as a country may be muddled with many different cultures, however individualistic beliefs and values that occasionally align with one and other do not make a nation. We have so many ethnicities, religious beliefs, and political parties that we cannot be considered a singular nation but rather a country full of different nations. Our physical country borders protect and serve our rights to belong to these different nations, but we are not one unified nation. Trudeau claims that “Canada has no core identity,” and believes Canada to be the first post-national state. However, this statement can be interpreted in many ways as said by the Vancouver Sun that Canada “is a place that respect for minorities trumps any one group’s way of doing things”. This interpretation requires all groups within Canada to be equal regardless of the population within each group. This doesn’t support our government though, because our political structure is a democracy and works on a majority vote principal. Every way we make political decisions is based on democracy and in pleasing the majority of the population. For example, when Quebec voted in 1995 for the referendum the majority won the vote, even though the vote was within 2% of each other. This shows how all large decisions are decided through the majority of voter’s opinions. As shown above, because of our numerous demographics and foundation of democracy being a Country is far more likely than a post-national state.



In-depth Post #5

Throughout the last few weeks finding a mentor meeting time that has worked has become increasingly hard. To find time within my mentor’s schedule we had to simplify our latest meal. We decided to go with a pizza night where I made the dough in the morning and my mentor and his family came later in the evening. We used different flavors to create different pizzas. In total, we made 7 different pizzas.  We made a pear and blue cheese, Hawaiian, Italian sausage, 4 cheese, vegetarian, Italian balsamic, and a pesto mushroom pizza. Although making pizza isn’t a traditional cooking dish it utilizes a variety of flavor and spicing techniques in parallel with cooking. Creating different flavors from scratch by combining different sweet and savory ingredients taught me many important lessons. To teach me the art of flavor my mentor suggested a technique called “subtlety of flavor”. This technique according to my mentor “helps create a pleasing taste by ensuring not too many flavors are in contrast to one and other”. As shown below the pizza’s turned out great, and it was really interesting to slow down and have more time to talk with my mentor while the pizzas were cooking. While cooking more complex meals finding time to ask questions was sometimes hard. Whereas during our last meeting I was able to communicate more effectively and have in-depth conversations with my mentor. Moreover, I also learned about the importance of temperature when using different ingredients. Although cooking is often very forgiving in order to perfect a recipe keeping ingredients fresh and cool until the cooking time (especially when working with pizza dough) is incredibly important. I was amused at the fact that our first few pizzas did worse than the last few since we put everything into the fridge between batches. I also learned about serving food right after its cooking time. The pizza tasted the bets when it was directly out of the oven, and everyone was more than happy to crowd around as pizzas finished cooking.


img_1574 img_1575 img_1584 img_1585 img_1586 img_1590 img_1592 img_1593 img_1594 img_1595



































Sarah: “…is there a reason the pizzas are falling apart as they go into the oven?”

Mentor: “The dough might be getting warm, and adding the sauce too early is probably making it too soggy.”

Sarah: “Should I put the rest of the dough in the fridge? I can probably fit most of the dough and the fresh ingredients.”

Mentor: “Sure, make sure the dough isn’t stacked, we want them to continue rising while we wait. Do you want to tell everyone the first pizza is almost done? It will taste best when it comes out of the oven.”

Sarah: “Sounds good, I will let them know and then put everything in the fridge. We can do one pizza at a time on the pizza stone that way the dough stays cold and nothing gets soggy.”


In Edward de Bono’s novel How To Have A Beautiful Mind parallel thinking is discussed as an alternative to traditional arguments. He describes parallel thinking as an alternative to arguments and that it “allows joint exploration of a subject [… it] require[s] each individual to fully explore a subject rather than just making and defending a case” (104). When people think in a similar way or wear the same thinking hat they are thinking in parallel with each other avoiding a direct argument.  In this way, mentor meetings can be more effective and less controversial. In the transcription above I have taken a conversation with my mentor and will now explain the different hats in use. At the top, a white hat is being used as I am asking a question about the technical cooking techniques and my mentor is answering my question. When my mentor tells me to “tell everyone the pizza is almost done” and to tell everyone because it will taste better when it comes out of the oven we switch to Blue hats. This is because taste may not be a factual term, but it has to do with the emotional attachment with sharing our meal. In this way, my mentor and I still address things from a technical standpoint but add emotions about our families and them enjoying the meal as well. There are many other hats referenced in the book but those two are the most prominent within the transcription.

In Depth Post #4

Throughout the last few weeks, I have done a lot of research on the different ways to modify recipes. Along with my mentor, I decided to make a vegetarian style meal. Vegetarian cooking is not my mentor’s specialty, so I compromised, and we made one meat dish. I made leek and potato patties with chimichurri sauce, a salad, and chicken satay. Links and photos can be seen below. Since we are getting further into in-depth, I made these dishes with little guidance from my mentor. Through cooking on my own I have a newfound appreciation for how much time goes into cooking. According to my mentor practice will improve the time it takes to prepare dishes, but cooking is a time taking process. I look forward to future mentor meetings and learning more.


Leek & Potato Patties 

Chimichurri sauce

53778705_1614879781948504_4951879524561190912_n 53819531_2212043968853356_430432641628504064_n 53265506_624898151256680_3019544948925005824_n 53702613_1167165000129136_466116527003795456_n 53430001_2267028410285252_43975783596687360_n

In Edward de Bono’s book on how to have a beautiful mind, we read a variety of pf chapters that have shaped my mentor meetings. One of the main points the book made is that “questions are a key means of interaction in any conversation or discussion” (88). During my mentor meeting, I was sure to direct shooting questions with the intention to probe information, and I utilized open-ended questions to learn new aspects of my in-depth project. I found shooting questions incredibly helpful to fill up time while cooking and reassure myself of my competence at skills. By asking shooting questions I was able to continue cooking with constant reassurance from my mentor. I utilized open-ended questions to check my different theories and research against my mentor’s opinion. I asked open-ended questions so that I could contrast my findings on the internet with my mentor’s opinion. I found that although the main ideas were the same differences of opinion were evident. I feel confident in my abilities to continue working effectively with my mentor and am enjoying in-depth thus far.

Romeo and Juliet Blog Post Critical Response

I agree that Romeo and Juliet are engaging in puppy love. Throughout the play, we have seen them fall in love instantly and not consult any of their friends and family for advice. For these reasons, I believe that they do not fully understand their actions or feelings. Romeo sees Juliet and immediately declares “she doth teach the torches to burn bright,” within seconds of laying eyes on her (1, 5, 44). His opinion of Juliet is purely based on appearance. Juliet is slightly unsure of Romeo’s exuberance to please her and is overwhelmed when she says, “saints do not move,” as she will neither confirm nor deny her feelings (1, 5, 105). These first two quotes exemplify how little Romeo and Juliet understand each other, and their emotions. Neither of them asks questions about the other person and are instead is swept up in their own feelings of love. However, love is an emotion between two people and Romeo and Juliet seem to understand their emotions on only an individual basis. Although Juliet is the most hesitant at the beginning, she is the first to mention marriage. After Romeo sends her a proper marriage proposal, she is overjoyed but does not think about Romeo but rather the implications of marriage to someone of her own choice. For their relationship to be love there must be a genuine interest in the other person besides appearance. Neither Romeo or Juliet seem particularly inclined to talk about anything but how attractive or dangerous their love is. This makes me believe that because their love must stay a secret it appeals to them more. This is backed up by the quote from Juliet to “Deny thy father and refuse thy name,” as it appeals to Juliet for Romeo to make sacrifices for her (2, 2, 34). Moreover, neither character is extremely interested in communicating their newfound affection. Although both characters share that they are in love, often names are not used, and the recipient of their affections is left out of conversations. In this play, the plot of the two families hate may prohibit this, but whenever they talk about love their focus is on understanding their feelings rather than the other person. When Juliet meets Romeo to get married, she confesses her love as “my true love [has] grown to such excess wealth I cannot sum up […] my wealth” (2, 6, 33-34). In this quote, her ‘love’ is not Romeo but rather her internal feelings and emotions. Another way to state the quote is, her emotional maturity and understanding of emotions have increased.  In this way, we can see that Juliet is exploring her emotional depth and is not invested in Romeo as a person. Overall, I agree that Romeo and Juliet are in puppy love, as they are less interested in the person and more interested in the secrecy and the individualistic intensity of their relationship.


Kulich’s argument is not very effective in convincing us that Romeo and Juliet should not be viewed as children. The logos basis behind his argument is minimally misleading, but the appeal to the pathos and ethos perspectives are neglected. Although we can factually recognize that different time periods had different norms it is hard for us to emotionally relate to these times. Kulich states that “at 14 years of age human beings were considered to be adults,” but our societal norms today fundamentally disagree (Jindra Kulich). During the 15th century, the age of consent was 12 for women and 14 for men. Although we understand they were considered adults this does not mean that they were mature to today’s standard of being an adult, and the average marriage age during the century was 21 for women and 25 for men. This shows us how even during the late 15th century a marriage at Juliet’s age was uncommon. Moreover, the author is undermined by their only emotional story about “when [they] were 14 years old,” as they reveal their bias. This story shows potential bias because it reveals that the author has personal experience of being considered an adult at 14. This type of bias is called cognitive bias and is “a general term that many psychologists and other behavioral experts use to describe […] filter[ing] or perceive[ing] information based on […] past experience,” (David Galowich). In this case potential, cognitive bias harms the author’s credibility in reference to children being considered adults. Overall, Kulich’s theory is unconvincing as the three sides of the rhetorical pyramid are not used to enforce the argument.


 Albert Blog. (2019). Understanding the Rhetorical Triangle for AP English Language. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Feb. 2019]. (2019). The age of marriage:: Life and Times:: Internet Shakespeare Editions. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Feb. 2019].

 Galowich, D. (2019). Understanding Biases And Their Impact On Our Perceptions. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Feb. 2019].

In-Depth Blog post #3

img_1380-1Throughout the last few weeks, I have done a lot of research into cooking, and cooking techniques and adaptations. Although at the beginning of my project I planned to focus on lentil and curry dishes I have realized that cooking is about techniques and comfort adapting recipes. During my last meeting with my mentor, we discussed broadening what we should cook to set a technical foundation. In this way, I will become more comfortable with several different dishes and cooking skills, and at the end of my project can focus more specifically on lentils and curry. During the last few weeks, I made a Thai red curry on my own and made another dinner with my mentor. I made skirt steak with chimichurri sauce, roasted sweet potatoes, spring greens with a raspberry vinaigrette, roasted vegetables, and apple crisp. Although this doesn’t follow my original plan, I learned a lot of cooking skills. Such as how to hold a knife, how to form artificial convention currents on a Barbeque to improve roasting, and how to cook without a recipe. For all these dishes we used online recipes for ingredients and then did not look at the measurements. All the food turned out great!










According to Edward de Bono in How to have a beautiful mind showing interest in conversations and responding properly both play a part in having meaningful conversations with others. During my mentor meeting, I took an interest in his ideas with my project. My mentor suggested to “have a 100mile themed meal in the spring,” this would entail cooking with ingredients produced within 100miles of my house. In this way, we can promote and support local businesses. Similarly, to his 100mile themed idea, I suggested we do one dinner where we cook camping food to dehydrate for our summer trips. This would help me with my food planning for both TALONS and personal trips. Moreover, camping meals are my mentor’s favorite to cook and plan, as he always takes the lead on meal planning during our yearly trips. I demonstrated how to respond by “build[ing] upon that point in order to take it further” (pg64). I built around my mentor’s point of having a 100mile theme and suggested we theme more of our dinners to make it more interesting. Moreover, I responded to his 100mile idea with different businesses I knew in the area. By responding and showing interest in a deliberate manner we can improve the depth of our conversations with those around us.

In-Depth Post #2

This year my focus is on learning to cook. For my first meeting with my mentor, we decided to cook Malaysian Chicken Curry, Beef Satay, Peanut Sauce, Steamed Fish with Soy Sauce, and Malaysian style vegetables. This meal taught me a lot of useful cooking skills that I can apply to my life. Such as holding a knife properly, how to adapt a recipe, when to follow exact measurements, and how to cook a lot of dishes at the same time. My mentor taught me that cooking is an art and that a recipe is a guideline, not an instruction manual. One source of agreement between my mentor and myself is that “the secret to restaurant cooking is excess salt and sugar, but at home, it is better to find a healthy balance”. Both my mentor and I agree that although restaurant food is delicious there are other ways to make food taste good. Although this is a sweeping generalization is it one that I personally agree with most of the time. A source of disagreement with my mentor is that “the base of all great cooking is onions, garlic, and ginger”. I agree that all these ingredients can be found in most recipes but find that too much of these ingredients can overpower other flavors. Moreover, Onions have never been my favorite ingredient since I cry whenever they are in the same room as me. Therefore, I can deduce this disagreement as a difference in experience. This can then be called a differ of opinion since neither person is right or wrong. My mentor understood my hesitance to cook with onions and suggested that I try biting a spoon which supposedly decreases my likeliness to cry when cooking with onions. Overall, I have made much progress and am grateful for my mentor’s help.


When my mentor arrived with his family at my house the first thing we did was go to T&T for grocery shopping. We looked for all the ingredients listed below in the linked recipes. The most interesting ingredient was choosing a live fish to take back with us for our steamed fish recipe. After arriving back at my house, my mentor and I marinated the beef for satay in a dry rub of spices, ginger, scallions, and garlic. Leaving the beef to marinade we marinated the chicken for the curry and fried it slightly until golden brown on the outside. Adding coconut milk, lime leaves, star anise, curry spices, and cinnamon we let the curry boil. While the curry boiled, we steamed the fish with ginger and red wine vinegar and prepared the vegetables. Cutting the Gai Lan down the stem for blanching and chopping the ends off the watercress we prepared the vegetables for cooking. We then fried the watercress and took the fish out of the steamer. Adding the soy sauce concoction, the fish and watercress were done. Finishing the vegetables and barbequing the beef satay was the next on our list. The last-minute decision to add a peanut sauce was a huge hit with my mentors’ younger kids. Links and pictures can be seen below.

Steamed Fish

Malaysian Chicken Curry

img_1309 img_1310 img_1311 img_1312 img_1313 img_1314


Inquiry Question:

How does audience impact creative writing from an author’s perspective?

So often in our lives, we read books and have a differing opinion than others reading the same book. One of the reasons this happens is that books are written by authors for specific audiences, and often don’t appeal to other demographics. The actual intent of the author is not to appeal to everyone, but to appeal to a very small group of people. My inquiry question allows me to understand how authors write for such specific demographics. Throughout my project my question has changed in wording but not in my focus. In the beginning, I wanted to focus on the effect of audience-specific literature on the average reader, instead of authors. I changed my question to focus on authors because these two ideas are interconnected, and author strategies ultimately lead to the effects their writing has on audiences. By changing my question, I made my research more specific and narrowed down my question to a more manageable size. Moreover, I was able to exercise my ability to connect ideas and study the relationship of cause and effect from writers to readers. By adapting my question and studying an interest I was able to form a deeper understanding of the author and audience dynamics.



Throughout ZIP I have expanded many important literacy skills that will further benefit me as a student. Firstly, I have gained a better understanding of different demographics within society, and how to interact with different people. Research concerning author and audience dynamics lead to more research into different dynamics authors could possibly target. Secondly, most of my research came from marketing sources about targeting demographics. I synthesized my research to relate to writing instead of marketing purposes. This gave me practice synthesizing information to different mediums and topics, which can be used in the future for different inquiry projects. Moreover, synthesizing research also helped me form a deeper understanding of connections between different literary concepts. Through developing my understanding of demographics, research, and synthesizing information, I am now able to utilize each of these skills for future projects.

Answering inquiry question:

There is no true answer to my inquiry question, as there is no perfect way to write for an audience. An author’s identity will always come across in their writing, and authors are often limited to demographics they personally belong to. An example of demographic barriers would be gender, economic class, family life, and career. All these demographical components can contain authors within their own lived experiences. You will notice this as female writers tend to write for female audiences, or parents tend to write parenting books. In this way, our ability to write literature is dictated by shared experiences such as being female or being a parent. These shared experiences make you reliable and trustworthy, which help you build a relationship with your reader through the characters in your novel. “You need to serve primarily and sell to secondarily” as stated by Peter Frances in his study on changing demographics in business. This quote shows us that serving your audience or forming a relationship is more important than selling the idea of understanding. Forcing a relationship never works. In order to form a meaningful connection over literature, the author must convince readers to care about their characters. To do this author’s often write similarities from the main character to the audience through thought, decisions, and lifestyle. Such as Harry Potter was written for children ages 9-13 in the middle to lower class. Similarly, the main character is an 11year old boy who lives with a middle-class family. Another example of this being books directed towards a female audience having female main characters, who make decisions primarily based on female logic. Overall, the answer to my question is undefined. Authors are most effective when writing from experience to demographics they relate to and can connect with through characters within their fictional stories.



21da516adbd2239c22b789abedb15b79My final learning artifact is two stories directed to different ages of children following the same plot line. Both stories are about a female main character who discovers goblins living in a laundry room wall whose sole purpose is to collect socks. As explained in the previous paragraph authors are contained to write from shared experience. In this way, I decided to make both my characters female. The first story is for ages 2-5 and encompasses the theme of kindness and always keeping a positive attitude. This story utilizes my learning by showcasing my ability to sift through vocabulary and make thematic decisions based on my chosen audience. The second story is written for children ages 10-12 with younger siblings. Writing from my own experience as an older sibling allows me to create a relatable character based on lived experience. This story encompasses the older sister’s acceptance of her younger brother’s constant torment and the theme of accepting others for their own identities. Throughout these two stories, I utilize skills learned throughout this project to write for specific audiences from lived experience.


This artifact demonstrates my chosen competencies as audience writing is the art of adapting different aspects of literary tools. My first competency being to “Recognize and appreciate how different forms, formats, structures, and features of texts enhance and shape meaning and impact”. This relates to my artifact as by adapting the format and features of text I can create two stories with different meaning but the same plot. The second competency is to “Explore how language constructs personal and cultural identities”. This competency is incredibly important when writing children’s stories, as your vocabulary as a child dictates your perceived identity to others. I utilize this in my first story for ages 2-5 as shown in the quote “Mom got up and helped Kate get ready for the day”. By referring to Kate’s mother as Mom the story further identifies that vocabulary of its audience. Moreover, utilizing the third person allows children to learn from other people’s experiences. Using first or the second person confuses children at a young age, as they cannot understand the complexity of putting yourself in someone else’s life. When using ‘I’ children get confused as to who you are referring to and cannot understand that they are the person within the story. The final competency for my project is to “Transform ideas and information to create original texts”. This competency is the base of my entire ZIP project, as I have used audience ideas and transformed them into two fictional stories.



This source incorporates how to adapt a written work to fit an audience. This was incredibly useful when writing my artifact as I wrote the same plot for two different audiences.

This source teaches key point when relating to an audience’s ethos side. This source also includes helpful statistics on common vocabulary mistakes.

This source focuses on the difference of marketing to men and women as a small business. This is useful as it gets into the most common differences in mindset between men and women which is useful when studying audience analysis and writing characters. This source helped me realize how hard it is to write for someone outside your relatable demographic.

This source explains the importance of customer demographics and targeting audiences in marketing. By looking at the most important demographics in marketing I can transfer this into the important demographics for authors writing for audiences.


New Questions:

I have many new and exciting questions to further explore my inquiry topic. One of these questions is, do authors choose their plot or audience first, and how do authors write fictional experiences based on real life? These questions all relate to the ambiguous answer to my inquiry question. Since I now know how authors write for audiences I want to further explore how they choose the appropriate demographic. This excites me as understanding this piece would make my ZIP relevant throughout the entire writing process, from choosing, writing, and editing for an audience.

In-Depth Introductory Post

This year my in-depth is cooking healthy lentil-based foods using substitutions. In today’s world people so often have different dietary restrictions, or simply want to eat better. My project will allow me to explore different ways to adapt recipes for these restrictions. I will research substitutions and ways to improve the health of food dishes. By implementing different dietary restrictions, I will improve my understanding of the components of recipes and food. Moreover, improving my understanding of nutritional value will increase my nutritional health in my own life.


My mentor is a family friend who has always been incredibly passionate about cooking. He has known me since birth and was overjoyed to assist me in my project. My mentor, Bob, is always in the kitchen preparing delicious foods whenever we go on vacation together. When we all go to Tofino every year for Thanksgiving, he always makes dinner for everyone, and occasionally makes advanced meals such as crab or oysters. Although seafood is not my personal favorite, Bob is famous within our family friend group for preparing incredibly extravagant meals when camping. No expense is spared when it comes to food, and my personal favorite dish he makes while camping is Japanese red curry. Throughout my In-depth I hope to learn some advanced cooking skills and a passion for food from my mentor.

January.15th-January.16th ZIP#3

Take a moment to reflect on your inquiry plan (calendar). Do you need to make any revisions to your original plan? If so why? If you haven’t made any changes to your plan, why do you feel you have been so successful sticking to it?


Throughout my inquiry, I have been incredibly successful following my ZIP calendar. I have completed all the aspects of my project in advance before my assigned due dates. I feel I have been this successful due to the way I set my due dates. I know that as a procrastinator setting reasonable due dates is important to ensure I don’t get everything done extra early. In this way, I avoid finishing my project too far in advance and spend more time on each aspect. Therefore, I set due dates that I follow up to a day in advance. I don’t let myself spend less time on each aspect. By forcing myself to spend adequate amounts of time on each aspect of my project, I can fully understand my topic. Another reason for my success is that I utilize in-class blocks. Most of my work for ZIP has been completed in class. By completing work in class, I can worry less about deadlines and have a good balance of homework. Overall, my due dates have been working largely due to my timely work habits and working in-class.

Jan.10th ZIP Post

My Notes for Jan.10th: Vocabulary

·       Writing I is like talking, only use words you would use in a conversation

·       People on average prefer you to talk below their grade level

·       Don’t dress up vocabulary

·       For people who speak European languages it may be easier to use big words as they are rooted in Latin ·       Use specialized words not jargon

·       Words should add to the flow

·       Even highly educated people prefer simple writing ·       Avoid gender specific pronouns if possible

·       Use concrete language to not be abstract

·       Use derogatory language to increase


·       What is the composition of my audience? Characteristics? Demographics?

·       Will they understand my language?

·       What beliefs or values does my audience believe in?

·       Will my audience appreciate the tone I am using to persuade or inform them about an issue? ·       Know your audience

·       Get their attention

·       Practice and immerse yourself in their literary world

·       Create a lasting impression

·       Don’t demand

·       Spark questions

·       Entertain your reader

·       Be professional

·       Be vivid

·       Let your personality show ·       Put yourself in their shoes and read your draft ·       Your audience is the people YOU WANT to persuade

·       Incorporate your audience into your THESIS for essays ·       Choose a specific audience

·       You cannot target everyone

·       Target specific people

·       Look at who you are comfortable writing for (experience)

·       Analyze what you want to say (does this help you narrow down your audience?)

·       Choose specific demographics

·       Choose specific psychographics

·       Evaluate your decision ·       Stereotypes are useful

·       Consider location ·       Opinion research (scientific)

·       Relate character to how they think

·       Polling is never a bad option

I feel that there are many skills I still need to explore throughout my ZIP project. I understand age demographics and considering audiences I now need to focus on specific strategies. Throughout last year’s project, I covered appealing to audiences in reference to age. This year I hope to find more on specific demographics. Moreover, I found an interesting article about how the demographics of your audience are only a part of writing for an audience. If you are thinking about someone else reading your writing you are technically writing for an audience. Writing changes when it is not for an audience because you are then writing for your own ideas and no longer need to explain your thoughts. Therefore, when writing anything we should always be considering how our audience will perceive or understand our topic.