Socials DoL 3: Halibut Treaty

Halibut Treaty… What exactly is the Halibut Treaty? The dictionary definition for the word treaty is a formally concluded and ratified agreement between countries, therefore, it can be assumed that the halibut treaty is an agreement made between countries about Halibut fish. However, many people fail to inform themselves on the direct consequence and result of this event, and how it really shaped Canada’s political and economic growth. A reasonable explanation for the lack of unified Canadian identity that is evident in today’s society is due to our lack of knowledge in significant Canadian events that determine our autonomy and makes us Canadians. By delving into the Halibut Treaty, we are able to learn about one of Canada’s most prominent landmarks that transitioned Canada to a sovereign autonomous state.

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First of all, in order to look back at an event which took place nearly a century ago (95 years to be exact), it is necessary to recall the events leading up to the Halibut Treaty. In 1923, when the Halibut Treaty was negotiated and signed, Canada had an ‘independent government’ but was not fully autonomous as a nation, due to Britain’s powerful grasp that still had a huge impact in Canada’s political decisions. Britain had the right to consent, repeal, and override any of Canada’s acts, and Britain’s acts still applied to Canadians.


Section 132 of the British North American Act states:

The Parliament and Government of Canada shall have all Powers necessary or proper for performing the Obligations of Canada or of any Province thereof, as Part of the British Empire, towards Foreign Countries, arising under Treaties between the Empire and such Foreign Countries.”


This basically implies that a Britain representative will have a seat at or at the very minimum be present in any of Canada’s international treaties and foreign affairs. Canada’s international standing became almost non-existent, which was expected  considering that any meeting involving Canada had a British subject attached at the hips who had all the power to OK or veto all the conditions being negotiated. Almost all of Canada’s officials at this time grew increasingly frustrated over Britain’s control over Canadian matters, many felt that Canadian ego was threatened, and some began to take small, but noticeable actions to retaliate back.

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In Canada, the Halibut stock value was rapidly decreasing. Prior to 1921, it was in great bloom: large scale halibut fishing was big in business after the creation of the Northern Pacific Railway, which connects the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Canada allowing Halibut to be traded and sold. In World War I, fishing for Halibut was big due to the continual efforts from Canada and the United States to be on good trading terms while the war was happening. In 1915, Halibut was at an all time high of 69 million pounds! The serious decline in Halibut became concerning enough that the Canadian government sought for a way to amend the problems. Between Canada and the United States, negotiations for preserving fish stocks began around 1918. Most prominently involved was Ernest Lapointe, then Canada’s minister of Marine and Fisheries, and Charles Evan Hughes, the US Secretary of State. Although at first the discussions had no urgency, the continual decline motivated both countries to come to an agreement regarding the North Pacific, fishing grounds for both countries. In the terms of this treaty, fishing would be off season and would not be allowed between November 16 to February 15, with a seizure of penalty if terms were broken. The International Fisheries Commission was introduced to inquire about the life of a Pacific Halibut and recommend measures to preserve their presence in our oceans. On March 2nd, 1923, the final result of the treaty boiled down to the Convention for the Preservation of Halibut Fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean, an historic first agreement on an international preservation of a resource. However, there is a bigger underlying theme that is arguably, more important than the treaty itself. (Will be discussed later on.)

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Halibut Treaty


Economically, this event improved Canada’s fishing industry and therefore the flow of Canada’s cash flow and economy. During this time, there was also an economic shift in trade between Canadians and international countries. Prior to the event, British was Canada’s biggest trading partner, but during this time, the US surpassed Britain. Politically, this was the first treaty that was signed without British involvement and established Canadian dominance over Canadian issues. (This idea will be developed in Historical Significance). Finally, socially, this changed Canadian mindset so that Canada is not so dependant on Britain, but rather a separate entity that can make own decisions.

Regarding this whole ordeal, we can put ourselves in the perspectives of Canadians of the early 20th century, and what they felt about the Halibut Treaty. One of Canada’s biggest industries at this time was fishing, and local business were being threatened by the lack of Halibut reaching the markets. Those who knew about the discussion of a treaty supported the government’s decision to negotiate fishing rights in the North Pacific Ocean, as the continual decline of Halibut could have negative impacts on Canada’s economy. Many also supported the government’s decision not to involve British officials. Prior to confederation, a lot of Canadians were still loyalists, and enjoyed the benefits from being under Britain’s rule, such as protection. However, after Canada’s ‘semi-independence’, the British Empire became a huge benefactor from the creation of another country. They did not have to use their resources to protect Canadians, however, still had the right to control all the regulations and bills in Canada. This brought along many concerns by Canadian Prime Ministers such as Robert Boden, and it can be assumed that their interests reflected the citizen interests at this time. After the treaty was signed, initially, the Halibut market continued to decrease while the IFC was researching and providing recommendations. However, after revisions in 1930, 1937, and 1953, and a increase of board members to six people, the market finally began to stabilize and grow. In 1959, a catch of 71.5 million pounds of Halibut finally exceeded the 1915 record of 69 million pounds. Canadians could finally feel a sense of independence, knowing that as a nation, decisions made without British involvement could still have a positive influence on Canada. 

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Historical Significance

As mentioned earlier, the Halibut Treaty affected all four quadrants of a cycle: economical, political, social, and environmental. That’s great and all, but what does this really mean in terms of Canadian identity and it’s path to becoming a fully autonomous state? This treaty seems of low importance at first, considering that it had minor impact on the US, however, it was extremely important from Canada’s perspective in terms of what this treat symbolizes beyond the simple preservation of nature.

When the negotiations were being made between Canada and the United States, the British wished to sign the treaty as they have always had. However, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King argued that this issue had nothing to do with the British Empire, therefore, a British official doesn’t need to be present. Despite fervent British resistance, King maintained his stance, even threatening to send independant representative to Washington D.C. The British Empire backed off, knowing that a request for independent representation would bypass any British authority.

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Mackenzie’s strong insistence to keep Britain out of the Halibut Treaty, was the start of proving Canada’s autonomy from the British Empire. Canada proved as a nation that it is capable of making independent decisions that shape its own future without guidance or help from Britain. Throughout accumulations of smaller steps such as the independent Canadian involvement in World War I, Prime Minister Mackenzie King successfully took the first noticeable step with the Halibut Treaty to Canadian autonomy.

For example, Prime Minister Robert Borden demanded that the Canadian Expeditionary Force in World War I fight as a single unit instead of a subunit under British troops. His case seems well justified; Canadian military members would want to fight for their own country, and it probably boosted Canadian moral and national pride. After the war, he continued on to fight for Canadian independence in small ways such as arguing for a Canadian representative at the Paris Peace Conference and for Canada to have its own seat at the League of Nations.

This also demonstrates national pride for Canada, and its growth over the last century from confederation to resisting against other countries trying to meddle in Canadian affairs. It proves that Canadian wants and fears can be negotiated within Canada and by a representative of Canada, and we are capable of making independent decisions that shape our own path. Although I was not present 95 years ago, this event is significant to shaping Canadian autonomy and forged the way to the Balfour Report, which states that, “all are autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate to one another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth.”


Dear, Sir, John A Macdonald,

Dear Sir. John. A. Macdonald,


First of all, I would like to congratulate you on your investment towards uniting the colonies.

I have written this letter to ensure my support for the upcoming confederation conferences and to convince you where I stand in this issue.

I must admit, when I first entered political matters I was quite opposed to the idea you had with the other members of the Great Coalition. I vaguely recall our confrontation in 1861, and being described as “a Tory of the old school” by Sir, which I presume implies negative connotations to the fact that I belong to “the old fossil party”, otherwise known as the Family Compact. However, I can reassure you that I do not have the so called wealth to be part of the group of people that controls most of the judicial, legislative, business, and religious powers of Upper Canada. My failure of a business and my poor success as a lawyer is enough proof of this fact. Furthermore, members of the Family Compact are heavily against democratic reform and responsible government which I clearly stand for, and which is the purpose of me writing this letter to you now.

As you may already know, in 1861, I defeated the postmaster general of your party, and was elected as an independent candidate to represent the Northumberland West in the Legislative Assembly. However, after much thought, I have decided to switch my allegiance to stand under your Macdonald and Cartier party, mainly due to one reason. I, Cockburn, pride myself on being a strong nationalist and hope to see all political parties stand under one central government which will carry out acts that benefit all the nations as a whole. This is the very reason why I empathize with your need to unite Upper, Lower and the Maritimes of Canada for economical reasons and for fear of annexation from the South. Time and time again I have reconfirmed my support for you, and the case in 1862 with my support of the proposed militia act is evidence of such. Needless to say, I am strongly for confederation as I have great faith in you, your convincing arguments, and your determination to see confederation through.

What particularly intrigued me was the rep by pop system. Although I am no means a recognized politician, and others may not see me as an individual with great conviction, I write to convince you of the validity of the rep by pop system and its accurate representation of the people’s wants and needs. Furthermore, as I immigrated to Canada at a very young age and my childhood and education has thrived in the heart of Ontario, undoubtedly, I have the citizens of Ontario in mind when pondering about the future of this new confederation. Canada West outweighs the population of that of Canada East and the Maritimes, and this could be used towards our favour when discussing new policies and laws that could benefit Canada West.

Finally, I write to you to shed some light on our recent threats from the south. As you are well aware, there is great tension that is arising between the border that separates us from the power of the south. It is in my greatest interest to see the colonies unite and raise our defenses towards their motives to annex our land through what is called the “Manifest Destiny”. America’s civil war may be dying down, but in turn, they have turned their ugly heads towards the land that we hold as our own. They may seem divided, but we must not cast this aside as weakness; their military and their soldiers could roll into our land in a matter of weeks and destroy years of culture and heritage that we have built upon our land. While other politicians have been blissfully feigning ignorance of such threats, I trust that you see the great dangers that might be soon present if we don’t take action immediately. In this, I give my full support to unite all colonies and nations as one, and to protect our people.

Although I am from a small town of Ontario, and my opinion matters least among powerful politicians, I do hope that my leap of faith towards the confederation would give you some support and confidence to follow it through.


An union of all people of all lands is long overdue.  The time is now.



James Cockburn



Dr. Frederick Banting and His Road to Discovering the Ultimate Treatment

The autobiography non-fiction book that I am reading about Dr. Frederick Banting is titled, Breakthrough: Banting, Best, and the Race to Save Millions of Diabetics by Thea Cooper and Arthur Ainsberg.  I am currently ⅔ finished and around my book!


“Which one should I have left, sir?”

This quote seems fairly unimportant at first glance, but once I read the background behind the quote, I immediately knew that it would be on this list. This took place in one of the earlier days of Banting’s life, during his service as an army medic in World War II. Banting was operating at one of the dressing stations in Lilac Farm, when the Germans were firing furiously at, well, at about anything. Banting had been hit himself in the arm and protested heavily when his commander told him to take the stretcher ambulance. Despite his orders, when the commander relocated to another dressing station for a brief time, he had to help the incoming stream of the injured asking himself, “Is this the face I am going to walk away from?,”. The answer was always no. Seventeen hours later when the commander returned, Banting was standing exactly where he left him. When he glared at Banting, Banting looked back without fear or malice and asked, “Which one should I have left, sir?” Banting’s dedication to his fellow officers is both admirable and stubborn, almost to the point of ignorance. Although his refusal to have his wound treated right away almost got his arm amputated, it also won him the Military Cross. Although Banting looks foolish for his impulsive actions several more times in the book, it just may be this stubborn character that eventually finds him the treatment for diabetes.

This quote shows the values of Canadians in times of need; leadership, innovation, resilience, and teamwork are only a prominent few among many. All this stems from that fact that Canadians feel a sense of duty to protect what they own, and the hardships shifted our values so that many civic nations bound together in a national crisis. As a nation, many volunteered and raised up to fight for their own country during the World Wars. We have a great sense of pride in being Canadians, and Banting showed us that despite his injuries, he was willing to stay and treat more injured people. This can also be connected to modern values of our time. Canadians often project the image of ‘peacekeepers’, which can be seen as both a positive and negative light. Canadian identity is a bit wishy washy; we have many common values, but no collective national interests to protect, which is why other countries view us as separate nations in one country. However, despite this, Canadians aren’t afraid to serve their country, and defend their own when it really gets down to it.


“He [Banting] had gone from being a country farm boy to being a medical student to being a decorated officer in the Canadian army and now he found himself unemployed and in debt, casting about for direction, plagued by resentments about the past, and paralyzed with fear about the future.”

I found this quote particularly interesting because in such a short time frame, you can really see how Banting progresses. If you compare this to a chart, I would imagine that it would look like an up, down, up down. Back in this era, it was hard for country farm boys to become medical students, and similar to modern day situations, it costed hard work and a lot of money. Banting himself only managed to attend medical school in UT due to his father’s graduating gift of $1,500. When he finally completed his courses, the country was at war, and he volunteered to serve in the army. After going through all sorts of trouble there, he became a decorated officer, only to come home and realize that he had no idea what to do next. I think Banting’s experience can resonate with many people because it shows that humans are creatures of habit, and when this habit is broken, we are often at lost for what to do. The determining point is how you adjust to this situation, and whether you have enough mind strength to push past personal doubts, find your identity, and recognize your presence in the community.

This says a lot about the values of the Canadian government and how they treated veterans in the past. Back then, veterans were honoured; the city held annual parades and built war memorials, but did not honour what the soldiers really wanted. JOBS. The aftermaths of the war were shocking and many soldiers who had survived the war couldn’t get back on their feet. They often felt lost in sense of direction of their life, could not find jobs to financially stabilize themselves, and many had post traumatic stress disorder from the war. Some even turned to alcohol and drug substance users to mitigate their stress in other ways. Banting was one of the people who went from being a highly respected officer, to a mere person with income rages of 4 dollars a day. Despite fighting so hard for Canada, Banting, and many others, were cast from the country when they needed the help back. Even today, many veterans are still not getting the proper acknowledgment that is due from the government. This quote allowed me to reflect on how much the veterans did for us, and how we could be improving their lives with sufficient funding and well managed senior homes.


“Diabetus [sic] Ligate pancreatic ducts of dog. Keep dog alive till acini degenerate leave Islets. Try to isolate the internal secretion of these to relieve glycosurea [sic].”

This quote is the most prominent two lines in the entire book so far; this would become the starting point of the cure for diabetes. What particularly captured my interest is that he thought of this idea at three in the morning, half awake and with extremely loopy handwriting. The fact that this single-handedly inspired him to discover a treatment for diabetes is astonishing because it shows how he accomplished such a feat with sheer will power, determination and strength of mind. Second of all, this also shows how progressive and smart Banting must have been to think of this kind of idea on his own (although there were similar discoveries in the past, Banting did not know about them). I can connect to Banting because once I have an idea down, I will do whatever I can to make sure it gets implemented or acted upon.

At the time Banting wrote these two lines in his black notebook, he was not aware that his idea was not original. Before Banting was Lydia de Witt who described the same idea as early as 1906 (63). As recent as 1916, in Rome, a physiologist also injected dogs with a pancreatic extract that normalized their blood sugar levels. This shows how Canada was detached to the rest of the world in an international level. Banting was not aware of these discoveries because these publishments had not been translated to English and brought over to Canada at this point. Articles between Canada and other countries were not interchanged smoothly till the later 20th century, and this could have stunted our country’s progress in a great array of genres. This could also have been detrimental to the career of many researchers as credit is often given to the first published successful experiment. Banting always said, “finding the discovery is not as important as publishing the discovery,”. If Canada and other countries are moving on to the post-nationalism stage, I think it is important to keep in mind that if so, scientists could then collectively contribute to cures for diseases such as cancer, at an international level.


“I’m more interested in finding a cure for diabetes than in reading about how others have tried and failed.”

This quote pertains to the conversation between Banting and Macleod when Banting visits his research university and proposes his idea to cure diabetes. What I found interesting is that from this quote I got two impressions of Banting. First of all, I can tell that he prides himself in being a smart person, almost to the point of arrogance. Macleod told him that many other researchers have tried similar methods, and although Banting did not know this information prior to their meeting, even after he found out, he thinks himself at a higher level then the previous researchers stating that he does not want to read the works of failed research experiments. Another impression of Banting is more positive; he knows that other people have failed, but it does not keep him doubting himself and his determination perseveres to continue searching for a cure for diabetes.

Ideas in the field of science in the early 20th century were not as advanced as that of modern day society. At this time, people valued researchers who discovered big ideas, and many scientists worked their entire lives to find little pieces of information, or mere clues that would confirm their theory. Although this is still the case in modern times, science has changed. In school we are only taught what is already known, and in most cases, aren’t given ample chances to think and connect pieces of information on our own. Science is the art of logic; many in our time believe that there is no imagining behind what is right and wrong, but if this was the case of many researchers before us, science would not have advanced. I think that Canadian values have shifted to limit ourselves to what we know and do not know, and in the case of science, this could be detrimental to our country’s progress.


“It was as if the dogs knew the importance of the work and willingly participated.”

This quote quipped my interest because Banting’s use of dogs for his experiments were morbid and terrifying. For each of Banting’s experiment, he used two dogs. One would be the donor, who would be ligated and sacrificed to supply to pancreatic extract for the second, depancreatized dog who would be the recipient. (87) Banting and his assistant Best, experimented on at least a hundred on dogs to finally see results. Going back to that issue about animals and their role in our life, this seems like a terrible but honest reflection on the kind of person Banting is, and is very controversy because he is experimenting on hundreds of dogs, to save hundreds of human lives. This changed my impression on Banting in quite the negative way and shows once again that even the most brilliant people can’t escape from mistakes in their life.

This connects to current events as well, specifically, the inquiry question that Melissa and Nicole brought up regarding animal testing. Using two dogs for every experiment, and having many experiment failed with the only result of a dead dog, needless to say, Banting and Best went through hundreds of dogs. Although some were found on the street, I think that this goes back to the conversation that many societies don’t value animals in a human’s life. The experiments were not well handled either, many of the dogs died from starvation as Banting had to minimize sugar levels, and this kind of lab setting is unseen in our time. That being said, it shows that the Canadian society has progressed enough so that this kind of lab setting cannot be administered. In modern values, we are working towards appreciating animals, only taking what’s needed and making sure experiment are approved for safe animal care.



If one works hard enough at being persistent, eventually it will create opportunities for success.  

Banting on numerous occasions, demonstrated that he was a persistent individual. For example, when others told him that he could not survive in medical school due to his lack of background in his early years, persistence allowed him to graduate and serve in the Canadian military. He was persistent in continuing medicine, so when medicals advised him to amputate his arm after he was shot by a gun, he refused and eventually gained back the use of his arm. Even when Macleod was hesitant about granting Banting the lab to carry out his research on pancreatic extracts, he fought back with hard rebuttals because he was persistent in making his experiment a success. Although persistent can sometimes be seen as foolish, it created opportunities for Banting to work with others in the same work of field, and eventually lead to Banting’s discovery of the treatment of diabetes. I can connect to Banting in many different ways because we are both people who attain the mindset that enough effort will eventually lead to success. Furthermore, like Banting, I had the desire to pursuit a career in medicine from a very young age. Since medical school is something that requires a lot of persistence, reading about Banting allowed me to understand that if I want to survive through medical school, I need to be more persistent in taking charge of my own learning and to direct my path to where I want to go.

Sir. John. A. Macdonald – Worth A Long Second Look

Mr Morris


April 20, 2018

Historical figures are often held at a higher scrutiny regarding their negative actions then positive as they affect a wider array of people’s livelihood. Recently, this sparks the debate over Canada’s first prime minister Sir John. A, Macdonald, who is receiving criticism for his promotion of the Indian act, and similar legislations, that goes against modern Canadian principles. Although some argue that Macdonald is rightfully titled as ‘Father of Confederation’ due to his resolution to unite Canada, those who call for the removal of Macdonald’s name and statue believe that his actions towards minorities, such as the Indigenous and the Chinese, are a direct insult to the multiculturalism that is prevalent in Canada today. Nevertheless, because of John A. Macdonald’s historical values that cannot be judged by contemporary mindsets and his strong effort to keep Canada a separate entity from the United States, his displays should rightfully remain in the public sphere.

Since values are determined by the wants and needs of society during a specific time period, one cannot judge Macdonald with current values, as when society progresses values change as well.  Although the Dominion of Canada had multiple misjudgements in its creation, one must note that “while Macdonald did make mistakes, so did [all] Canadians, collectively” (Gwyn). Macdonald cannot be used as a scapegoat for the thousands of other Canadians during the 1900s, who also believed that white supremacy was the fundamental basis of law, hierarchy and order in a society. Viewing Macdonald objectively as only a leader of this environment, his first priority was to Canada as a whole and to please Canadians in order to form a new thriving force. Since the majority of vote holders at the time were white, privileged men, it made sense for him to appeal to them in order to implement his big ideas. Like any other praised political leader, he was committed to the right values of society then, and worked hard to ensure that his actions reflected the people’s wants. Instead of seeing Macdonald as an obstacle to Canada’s acceptance of all ethnicities, one can view  Macdonald as a reference point of Canada’s progress and rapid changes in the Canadian zeitgeist.

Contrarily, others argue that John. A. Macdonalds’ public displays accentuate and glorify his negative values such as racism that don’t align with current Canadian values. However, Macdonald’s monuments represent moments in time that deserve appraisal from the public, most notably, his determination that kept Canada a separate nation from the United States. Macdonald was prime minister during the time labeled “Canada’s age of failure, [when] one in five Canadians left for a better life below the border” due to the poor economy (Gwyn). However, despite Liberal promise of a free-trade agreement with the United States, Macdonald’s strong resolution and vision towards Canada convinced Canadians to vote for him at the election of 1878. By keeping high tariffs, taxes paid by importers and exporters to have their products available internationally, he helped to promote the economy by forcing Canadians to buy domestic goods. Without Macdonald’s determination to prevent the free-trade agreement, Canada’s economic dependence on the United States would soon shift to a political dependence; the wealth of culture and diversity that can be seen in Canada now would have been lost. The statues of John. A. Macdonald honour his efforts in uniting Canada as an independent nation, and because this is still valid and of importance today, his figure should not be removed.

The Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario states that the removal of Macdonald’s name from public schools is necessary for children to feel safe in their own environment, while others say that removal will prevent us from learning about Macdonald’s legacy as the father of confederation (National Post). However, when one understands that Macdonald cannot be judged with our current values, and that his determination stopped Canada from merging into the United States, it is clear the Macdonald should be a figure that remains in the public sphere. Sir. John. A. Macdonald made plenty of bad judgement calls, but just because the values of his time were different then now, hiding our past by removing his likeness isn’t helpful in the long term. As Canadians, we should be honest when looking past our history, and understand the sacrifice and efforts made to achieve Canada’s multicultural society. Similarly, while understanding Sir. John. A. Macdonald and respecting his endeavours, we can learn from his mistakes and make sure history does not repeat.


Additional Works Cited:

Press, The Canadian. “Ontario Elementary Teachers’ Union Calls for Renaming John A. Macdonald Schools.” National Post, 24 Aug. 2017,

Romeo & Juliet: Fake Love?

1. Based on our readings so far, do you agree or disagree that Romeo and Juliet’s relationship is one of “”infatuated children” engaging in “pupply love”” ? Why or why not? Provide at least two pieces of textual evidence.

William Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet, tells the story of two star-crossed lovers that are born in enemy families, but experience ‘love at first sight’ after meeting each other at a party. In the end, their family rift eventually causes them to both die tragically: a medium Shakespeare uses to show the audience how deep their love runs. However, Shakespeare does a poor job of representing his view on love throughout the play. Jo Ledingham’s review describing Romeo and Juliet as “infatuated children engaging in puppy love” may seem over-exaggerated; however, there is undeniable evidence in the story that seems to suggest that her description is indeed true.

Love is defined as an intense feeling of deep attraction; Romeo’s supposed love for Juliet is questionable because he got over Rosaline, his previous lover, too quickly.  In Act 1, before Romeo’s first encounter with Juliet, Romeo tells Benvolio that, “[Rosaline] [has] forsworn to love, and in that vow does [he] live dead that live to tell it now” (1:1 220-221).  In this passage, Romeo is describing his emotions, stating that because Rosaline has sworn off love, although he is alive, inside he feels dead.  This implies that Romeo believes he can’t live without Rosaline, and readers assume that his affection towards her runs deep, as like love. However, after Romeo first sees Juliet, he asks himself, “Did my heart love till now?  Forswear it, sight! For I ne[v]er saw true beauty un[til] this night” (1:5 52-53).  He quickly forgets about Rosaline, and even states that if his heart loved anyone before, his eyes were lying because he never saw what true beauty looks like before this night. The significance in this quote lies in how Romeo describes love. He asks if his heart loved anyone until now, but instead of saying that his heart must have been lying, he clearly says that his eyes must have been lying.  This further reinforces that Romeo’s attraction towards Juliet is shallow, and as stated by Friar Lawrence, “lies not truly in [his] heart but in [his] eyes” (2:2 67:68). Romeo only sees the outward qualities of Juliet, and perhaps this is why he pursues Juliet in the first place; Juliet, much like Rosaline, is a Capulet, and a beauty. Romeo sees only an escape in Juliet as he is trying to get over a girl who doesn’t love him back; his infatuation should not be interchangeable with love.

Likewise, by choosing to love Romeo, Juliet is trying to escape her marriage with Paris. In previous scenes, Juliet repeatedly declines her mother’s wish for her to get married, and states that it is “an honour that [she] dreams not of” (1:3 67). Juliet knows that eventually, she will have to marry a man, most likely Paris based on the content of the story. However, in choosing to have a relationship with Romeo, she would be freed from her responsibility to marry Paris.  Furthermore, Juliet, at a young age of 14, has not had the chance to experience love yet, therefore is not experienced enough to recognize what love feels like.  Even Capulet mentions that she “is yet a stranger in the world; she [has] not seen the change of fourteen years” (2:1 8-9). As Juliet is not exposed to the world outside her Capulet family, although very thoughtful, is most seen as naive.  At first, Juliet is hesitant about her affection with Romeo, but eventually succumbs to her wants which is unlike her careful character.  Her behaviors are rash, which proves that her infatuation is causing her to drift away from her true self. Later on, readers might see more evidence that proves Romeo and Juliet’s love as real, however our readings so far seems to suggest otherwise.


2. To what extent is Kulich’s argument that Romeo and Juliet should not be viewed as children effective, or even historically accurate?  Do some brief online research to back up your claim, providing links/ citation to your research at the end of your response.

Kulich’s argument that Romeo and Juliet should not be viewed as children is historically inaccurate.  First of all, she does not define the line between adults and children very well. She implies that children become adults when, “[they] go to work and assume their responsibilities”, however this is not how most children grow (Kulich). Collins dictionary defines an adult as “fully grown or developed”, and although this can come with responsibilities such as work, a journey to adulthood is through countless experiences and development that comes most notably with time (Collins Dictionary). Second of all, Kulich states that, “only a relatively few privileged children” receive further schooling.  In this case, Romeo and Juliet would fit under this category.  In Verona at the time, the Capulets and Montagues were of high status, therefore, their children must have received top education and consistent tutoring at least to the age of 14 (Alchin, Linda). The only reason that children of 13 years would be considered adults is because of marriage.  In 1619, the age of consent for girls was 12, and for boys 14, however, “marriages at this age was considered rare and generally not considered the best age for marriage” (Young, Bruce). According to this, Juliet would have been one year above the consent age, and unlikely, would have been married off.  Also, when Paris asks Capulet for Juliet’s hand in marriage, Capulet refers to Juliet as” [his] child” and not his daughter (2:1 8) which further exemplifies Juliet’s young age.  In conclusion, Kulich’s argument that Romeo and Juliet should not be viewed as children seems valid, but on further research, is historically inaccurate.


Young, Bruce Wilson. Family Life in the Age of Shakespeare. Greenwood, 2009.

Alchin, Linda. “Elizabethan Education.” Elizabethan-Era.Org.Uk,

“Collins Dictionary | Definition, Thesaurus and Translations.” Collins Dictionary | Definition, Thesaurus and Translations,

Zip: MacLeod’s Bookstore has awesome books!

What is a specific source of information that you have found valuable in answering your inquiry question?  How has it proved valuable?  Explain.


After some research during my weekend, I realized that much like the english language, the language of medicine adopt and change as well.  For small example, the term radiology is slowly changing into medical imaging because radiologist study medical images.  However, medical imaging is a wider term that is more correct to use as not all medical imaging is done with radioactivity.  A source I found useful is the book called that I found at MacLeod’s book store in October.  I originally visited the shops to find useful books for eminent, but I had no idea that the book I picked would be useful for Zip as well.  The book is well organized into three categories: the respiratory system, the skeletal system, and overall layout of the human anatomy; the book has detailed pictures and medical terminology labeling all of the parts.  Since online information is sometimes difficult to comprehend, I found that the book was great for understanding the terms and for fact-checking.  It also allows me to make my own inferences about medical terminology such as the use of different prefixes and suffixes.  For example, some words with prefixes a or an, means without, such as analgesic meaning without pain, and apathy meaning without feeling or emotion.  There is also relation between many words that have similar prefixes.  For example, conditions that start with trachea such as Tracheal stenosis, Tracheoesophageal Fistula, and the Tracheomalacia are all problems that develop in the trachea.

Zip: Changes in Medical Terminology

Zip Proposal of 2017

Inquiry QuestionTo what extent has medical terminology changed from its origin in the past 100 years in terms of words, symbols, and uses and what are ten examples that support my thesis?

What would you like to learn to do / what questions would you like to pursue in your inquiry?  Why did you choose this skill/ question?  What motivates or excites you in pursuing this line of inquiry?

I would like to analyze the origin of medical terminology, its relation to medical terminology in the last 100 years, and its changes today.  I will be making comparisons between words (general and prefix/suffix), symbols, and uses.  Some questions that I would like to ask myself are:

  1. Where is modern medical terminology derived from?
  2. Why is most modern medical terminology based on two dead languages (ancient Greek and Latin)?
  3. How has modern medical terminology changed in the last 100 years in terms of words, symbols, and uses?

I am interested in pursuing this inquiry because I am considering going into medicine in my future.  This could be the small introduction of medical terminology which could spark a bigger passion and interest in this field of work.  I am curious to research the history of language in medicine and how they change between the last 100 years.  I am excited to determine 10 different changes and to share the information to the class.

Big Ideas: Texts are socially, culturally, geographically, and historically constructed

Curricular Competencies

  1. Access information for diverse purposes and from a variety of sources to inform writing
  2. Explore the relevance, accuracy, and reliability of texts
  3. Apply appropriate strategies to comprehend written, oral, visual, and multimodal texts
  4. Think critically, creatively, and reflectively to explore ideas within, between, and beyond text


1. What do you currently know about this topic / skill, and what skills do you currently have that will help you succeed in your work?

  1. Although I am interested in going into medicine in the future, I currently know very little about it.  The only knowledge I know are little bits of information I learned from workshops that I attended in UBC and SFU.  Researching and exploring this topic will allow me to see if I am really interested in studying medicine in the future.  Through grade 7 to 9, I have done quite a bit of research projects, so I know how to take and organize notes properly, which will be an asset that will help me successfully answer my inquiry.

2. What is specific list of skills that you hope to have expanded on / learned by the end of this assignment?

  1. Learning how to research and take nodes efficiently (no plagiarism!)
  2. The ability to source research articles properly and to give credit (helpful in making sure the information stays in last 100 years)
  3. The ability to interpret data and information in a way that’s useful to me as medical terminology can be challenging to understand and read
  4. The ability to use technology (filming, voice overs, editing, etc.) in an efficient way as part of my presentation as I have never tried this method of presentation before

3. Who can you approach for support during you work/ research?

  1. I can approach Mr. Morris for help with my inquiry question and difficulties along the way.  I can ask my dad for terminology definitions and word analysis as he is a doctor.
  2. Furthermore, I can talk to peers who have filmed whiteboard style presentations if I have trouble editing or face technical troubles.

4. What are some other resources that might be useful in helping you complete your inquiry?

  1. Online resources
    1. Academic journals and previous researches conducted
    2. Informal youtube videos
  2. Books I borrowed in the library with information of evolution of medical terminology
  3. Dictionary
  4. A book I bought at MacLeod’s Books called which has tons of detailed pictures and information about medical terminology
    1. Excellent resource to compare online information with


  1. Research the origin of medical terminology
    1. Take notes on a couple of sources including at least 8 different academic sources and 2 informal sources
  2. Research changes in medical terminology in the last 100 years.
    1. 10 different examples
    2. Include symbols, word change, meaning change, research why?
  3. Draw infographic
  4. Make whiteboard video for presentation
  5. Delve further into topic if more time is available

What is your schedule for learning?

Date Task
December 3rd Zip project starts
December 8th Zip proposal finished
December 12th Basic research completed
December 13th Specific research orientated for presentation completed
December 14th Start drawing/making infographic (2 posterboards)
December 16th Pencil outline of infographic completed/ write zip presentation script
December 18th Fine line of infographic completed/ film zip presentation
December 19th Film zip presentation / read voice overs
December 20th Colouring of infographic and infographic finished
December 21st Edit zip presentation
December 22nd Zip due

Eminent 2017: The Second. The End.

I don’t think I will ever, ever, forget that moment, when I returned home after Eminent at midnight, and crashed on my bed.

Well frankly, it would have to be the moment before I layed on my bed, because as soon as my head hit the pillows, I was out.

Finally the end to what seemed like a long project, that went past all too fast. In some ways, I can say that Eminent is the embodiment of TALONS, and all the things we do in it, can represent our gifts that we bring to this community.  

I’m sad to let my second Eminent, my last Eminent, go.


Eminent seems like yesterday, but in reality, it was 2 weeks ago.  That’s how fast we changed gears, and I haven’t had much time to think about Eminent at all, due to the introduction of our zip project, novel study, Rube Goldberg, and statistics presentations.

In all honesty, I can’t even remember if Eminent even happened.  This was my mindset on November 23rd, and my mindset today, on December 3rd, when I am writing this blog post.

But when I look back on the night, I remember it all.   I started off the day with a slow hum of energy, and by the end of the day, my heart was racing, my legs were crumpling from exhaustion, and we were thrown right into cleaning.

Yes, Eminent did happen.


How was my day?




7:20 – I was at school, bright and early like usual, and I concluded my morning exercise which included: 5 flights of stairs carrying heavy furniture from my car to the classroom.  It would have been 13, but my sister and my mom thankfully helped me out.  Ms. Mulder even joked that I had enough things to fill up the classroom!


8:00 – The only non-Eminent part of my day was when I went to French.  Although, I tried hard to listen to the french Mme. Udell was speaking, my mind would always travel back to Eminent. I was questioning: would I memorize my speech on the stage, would my learning center properly set up, and did I, bring enough tape for the whole day?  (Turned out later that I didn’t).


9:20 – This could be noted as my first Eminent work block, and I couldn’t see down and relax.  I had finished all the components of my learning center the previous weekend, and while some painted boards or finished up tri-folds, I had nothing to do.  

In a way, I felt like this was WORSE than last year; because I had so much free time to think about the soon approaching night, and my anxiety level was off the roof. Last year, I was so busy finishing everything that I didn’t have a chance to ponder what if’s, which increased my nervousness. I tried to keep myself occupied by helping other people, testing out the roof of my learning center, and practicing my speech.


3:40 – As soon as the bell rung to signal the end of block 5, I knew chaos would resume.  Tables were being moved, I couldn’t hear my voice among others, and everyone was in a mad rush to get their belongings to set up for learning centers!  Honestly, I wouldn’t have gotten my learning center set up on time if not for the help of some alumni who came to my learning center and started duct-taping everything they could see.  On that note, THANKS SO MUCH MIMI, FRANNY, SYDNEY, AND RENEE!

I shoved my dinner down in 5 minutes flat, unhealthy, I know, but I was stressed out.  I had too many things to do with my learning center before speeches started.  I remember running up and down hallways with flats, which probably caused my leg ache later, palms sweaty and hair flying.  


7:00 – SHOW TIME!!!! I almost regretted going third last with my eminent speech, because it was hard to listen to everyone’s when I was so caught up in mine.  My speech turned out great, and all my effort practicing payed off in the end. (More on speeches later)


8:30 – Speeches finished, I finished some last minute touches to my learning center with a lightened heart. In all, I think I talked to about 30 people, and had an average of 3-4 minute conversation with each of my guests. (More on learning centers later)


11:00 – Clean up was finished.  With the TALONS community, I held hands with everyone for the last time at an Eminent closing circle.  It was finally over.



The other day, I was reading my final Eminent post of last year, and one of the things I wrote was, 

“As a grade nine, I know for a fact that I only had half the pressure the grade tens had.”

This turned out to be true, and I was quickly overwhelmed setting up my learning center.  However, with the help of friends and my mom, I reorganized myself, and got back on track.  If you want to see what my learning center looks like, check out my other post: Eminent 2017: Learning Centers and Everything inside.





Speech’s on Night of the Notables seem was the scariest part of the whole evening.  I can still imagine myself, anxiously waiting behind the curtains, counting down to the very moment when I would stand on stage.  Speaking in front of alumni, friends, family, and my sister, trying to fill a huge stage with just my presence, the spotlight trained on me.


Yep, it was scary.


It’s scary for everyone.  Even some of the most confident public speakers of the class were repeating their lines over and over, trying to engrave it into their memory.  

I was trying to remember my speech, trying to project, to get into the moment, to be emotional, to be… there was so many things that was going through my brain.  


But once you finish your speech and return back stage, the two minutes seem really short.  It’s one of the most important two minutes in TALONS, for sure, but in the long run, it’s actually pretty insignificant.

For the nines, in saying this, I mean, don’t stress out if you forget a line, or need a prompt.  Honestly, the audience tend to remember the best speeches, and the absolute, “I didn’t talk at all” speeches, but everything in between is pretty much a slur.  

“Everyone backstage is going to feel the same way you do, so trust in each other, have hope in your speech, and believe in yourself.”


You’ll do great.


My last Eminent was amazing, and I would like to congratulate everyone who had wonderful speeches and fantastic learning centers, and thank the people who supported me from the beginning.

  1. My family: My mom for helping me paint all of my cardboard sides, roofs, and windows.  She gave me tons of inspiration and helped me plan my learning center out when I was a little bit less motivated.  My sister for carrying all the heavy furniture up and down the stairs, I appreciate your effort.
  2. My friends: All the support I had backstage motivated me to perform the best I could.  My TALONS family are people I will stay with for the rest of my high school life.  I would like to say a warm, “Well done”, to all of you.
  3. To the alumni: For coming out and supporting this TALONS tradition even with your busy schedules.   And on more of a personal note, for helping me set up my learning center even when I was eating my dinner, because without you, my night wouldn’t have been as enjoyable.
  4. “Thank you so much KALEIGH, for sending me paragraphs of encouraging words on the morning of, because you just knew that I would be worried.”

  5. And last but definitely not least, Mr. Morris, Mr. Salisbury, and Ms. Mulder. Thank you for editing my speech, giving me pointers on my learning center, and for all the work and organization that goes into making this happen.


Eminent 2018, I’ll come back to visit… as a guest.


Eminent 2017 – Highlighting a SUPERCALIFRAGILISTICEXPIALIDOCIOUS piece of work!!

“From beginning to end, both Deon and van Gogh’s love for art clearly shined through.”

For my document of learning, I would like to highlight my fellow TALONS peer, Deon’s Learning Center and Speech.  Deon’s eminent person for this year was Vincent Willem van Gogh, who was a painter and an artist back in the 1800’s.  Although his work never shined in his era, his paintings are one of the most expensive and famous of today, auctioning an astounding $82, 500, 000 for his Portrait of Dr. Gauchet. I felt that Deon particularly resonates well with van Gogh, although they are of different genders, different eras, and different cultural backgrounds, their love of art clearly shined through in Deon’s stage and learning center.


Deon and I had similarities in terms that we had never undergone the same struggles that our eminent people had.  Van Gogh’s was often in misery as his paintings didn’t sell, and eventually surrendered into his own demise by shooting himself.  My eminent person, Malala Yousafzai was a girl who was born and raised in Pakistan, where it was very uncommon for girls to receive proper education.  Through her fight for women’s education all around the world, she encountered many obstacles, such as her experience with a Taliban when he shot her.  Because of the lack of similarities between ourselves and out eminent people, we tried to find connections and reasons on why we picked our eminent person to be our eminent person.

Deon is one of the most gifted artists I know.  She has the ability to trap movements in photos, and draw the most accentuated details with paper and a pencil.  After reading her two paragraphs on why she chose van Gogh, it was clear that Deon would make an excellent van Gogh on the Night of the Notables.

And this turned out to be completely true! Her stage on Night of the Notables was captivating and insightful.  It took listeners on an adventure through some of Van Gogh’s most heartfelt moments, through his struggles living as an artist in the 19th century.  I loved the way Deon represented van Gogh through a letter he writes to a friend, and the way she poured so much emotion out of carefully chosen words, to be an authentic van Gogh.

Finally, I was most taken back by her learning center.  I personally believe that it was one of the best of the night!  She set up her station very carefully, putting emphasis on all the minor details that made her learning center so memorable.  One particular aspect that I found the most captivating was the canvas drawings that she personally painted her self; it showed that Deon tried really hard to see the unwritten messages behind van Gogh’s painting so that should could recreate it as her own.  My mom told me that Deon’s station was one of her biggest highlight of the night, and thought it was very creative that she was drawing other people for her interactive component.

Overall, well done Deon!  You captured the essecence of a true Night of the Notable!