THE DAILY SUN – JUNE 5, 1866

Dear citizens and voters of New Brunswick,

As your Premier for the greater part of the past 5 years, I would like to thank you, the hardworking and steadfast people along the banks of St. John, for supporting me with your voices and ideas. I stand firmly behind the ideas of a confederation, a union of the British North American colonies, and a Dominion of Canada. As I stand as Premier with a majority, I will represent New Brunswick in the conferences to come that will determine our place in the Dominion. A strong nation in the North has been a part of my dreams for almost 20 years now, and hopefully, it will be yours as well.

I believe that you are all well aware of the benefits of a united nation, that of increased trades, better defences, and most of all, a great railway that will connect all of the previously separated provinces. Our beloved home is, unfortunately, not the best in terms of financial debt, but a union can bring new trade and work opportunities to a deprived economy. Our trade deal with the Americans had ended and Britain had long resorted to free trade, so the only and best option left to us would be to look around us. We have all of our colonies, each with different wants and fears, which a mutual trade relationship could satisfy. And any commercial union will inevitably lead to some kind of political union, one in which I now support. With the trans-colonial railway, we will have an influx of new cultures and produces, and we may freely travel to a place of our choosing. Our industrial settlements will boom from the construction of the railway and the resultant effects, and New Brunswick can then lift itself up as a powerful and responsible province.

The recent Fenian raids on the Indian Island may have hit most of you as an alarming call to get our defences up. For those who are blissfully ignorant, the civil war has just ended in the South, and the States are eying us with pity and dominance. Their “Manifest Destiny” threatens to annex our lands. Fenians are small threats compared to the armies of the Union States, and Great Britain is unable to defend us over such great a border. Only the combined power and statue of a united Canada can stop us from being robbed of our beliefs and cultures. United, we are stronger than any single province fighting on its own. It is necessary, therefore, to bind together the Atlantic and Pacific by a continuous chain of settlements and line of communications, for that was the destiny of this country and the race which inhabited it.

I had owned a pharmacy and I know firsthand the needs of the people and the province. I promise to fight for financial security and the great railway with all of my power. You need not worry about the position of New Brunswick in the new union, as I myself am a loyal citizen of this great province. I have and will advocate for strong provincial governments and equitable distribution of federal money, and the rights and autonomy of the citizens. You know me as one who speaks with logic and numbers, and I will not fail you in ensuring Maritime rights. Our independence is inevitable and nodded on by Her Majesty Queen Victoria, and it will only serve to strengthen our relationship with the Great Empire as more of a friend and less of a servant. Therefore, support me and my government, and we will build a strong country together.

I will soon depart for London to negotiate the terms for the first great country to be on this land, one proclaimed to be “inhabited by barbarians, bears and beavers” only, and in a few months time, we might finally call ourselves with the proudness of one belonging to a free and mighty nation – Canadians. Once again, I wish to thank you deeply for your support, and I will continue to uphold a responsible government serving its people.

 

Yours sincerely,

S. L. Tilley

1866

“He shall have Dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth.” -Psalms 72:8


Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. 7 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Wallace, C. M. “Biography – TILLEY, Sir SAMUEL LEONARD – Volume XII (1891-1900) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography.” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. 12, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 1990, www.biographi.ca/en/bio/tilley_samuel_leonard_12E.html.

“Quebec History.” Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley Father of Confederation, Marianopolis College, faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/SirSamuelLeonardTilley-CanadianHistory.htm.

 

Tommy Douglas: Check In

“At that time Saskatchewan had the fewest hospital beds per capita in Canada. The ultimate goal should be kept in mind, said Sigerist: “to provide complete medical services to all the people of the province, irrespective of their economic status, and irrespective of whether they live in town or country.” [… Soon,] within seven years Saskatchewan had the most hospital beds per capita in Canada.”

The world changing public health care program started from a vision, that everyone regardless of their class can receive world-class medical services, born from the visionary that is Tommy Douglas. Douglas’s family had always been part of the working class, and when he was young, he had not the resources to find a doctor to perform surgery on his infected legs. His legs would have been amputated if a renowned orthopedic surgeon hadn’t passed by and offered his service free of charge. Since then, the seed grew so that when Douglas had the power to change the world, he did so for the people. Douglas was all about the socialist movements, aimed at the workers who are not respected and protected by rights. Worker’s lives in the early 20th century is hard, as they have not the money to provide for themselves even the basic necessities of life. Their lives are in the hand of big corporations, which benefit from tariff and price control. Nowadays, Canadians can all receive decent health care regardless of class and race, a feat that even in the present world is scarcely seen.

“workers in the building trades had become increasingly frustrated. The cost of living had jumped by 73 % since the beginning of the war, while their wages had risen only 13%. They wanted better wages and the right to form unions and bargain collectively. […] Business leaders spread the baseless rumour that Bolsheviks were behind the action, and the Winnipeg Citizen reported that the strike constituted a “determined attempt to establish Bolshevism and the rule of the Soviet.” (23)

This passage strikes me as significant since workers are unequally treated, and that they are also not allowed to protest. They are not given a voice. To protect their interests, corporations would spread fake news and later, strikers are silenced by force, resulting in death and blood. Voices supporting the protest are arrested soon after. It is a very different society from our own now, and once again, we see that workers have no rights. If they are not being treated fairly and are struggling to make ends come, especially later in the 1930’s, why are they still not allowed to voice their concerns? Do they even have a voice then? The answer would be no. The society was focused on the upper classes and the corporations, and the workers are not respected. A couple more steps and we would arrive at fascism. Today, it is different and at least everyone is given a voice and a right to peacefully demonstrate. We have a society that is built on its people, and Canada is still developing to support and equalize its peoples. Without many of the CCP’s or NDP’s early policies (worker’s rights, old age pension, health care, co-op), this process would be significantly delayed and perhaps our society will be a lot more racist and unequal for our citizens.

“I recognized then that if you came to a choice between losing freedom of speech, religion, association, thought, and all the things that make life worth living, and resorting to force, you’d use force” – Tommy Douglas (89)

This is a conclusion that Douglas drew during the onset of World War 2. The party leader of the CCP then was a pacifist, who opposed all military activities. Douglas argued that the basis of Canadian society is the values that we possess, and if fascism from the Axis powers takes over, we would cease to be ourselves and the values that we had held would evaporate under force. Pacifism would not matter if we do not use force, as there would be no means for anyone to act or speak anymore. There were many with this idea, but not many had expressed it as elegantly as Douglas did. This was an occasion when Douglas develops as a mature politician and realizes that his ideas are important and valid, and that ideas and values should never yield to authority.

One of the great legislative advances of the government was the passage in 1947 of the Saskatchewan Bill of Rights. It protected freedom of conscience, opinion, religion, expression, and […] preceded the United Nations’ adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by a year and came a full thirteen years before the Canadian Bill of Rights. […] Even prior to the end of the Second World War, the CCF invited Japanese-Canadian internees to resettle in Saskatchewan, at a time when most parts of Canada were trying to keep [them away].” (143)

Many of the innovative ideas by the CCF had Douglas, and most importantly, the people behind it. These new concepts that aimed to equalize Canadians and improve life for most of Canadians would not have been possible without leaders who care about the people. Saskatchewan was turned from a province loaded with debt and unhappy citizens to a booming, front-facing multicultural world. Canada had led the world towards universal human rights, and Douglas is the pioneer behind the wheel. It shows how Canada is a country built by people who are different, yet the same when they unite as a nation.

ON Sir JAM’s Public Affairs

Canada’s first prime minister Sir John A. Macdonald once remarked, “let us be English or let us be French . . . and above all let us be Canadians,” leading the two opposing cultures to unite as Canada.  John A. Macdonald’s efforts in bonding the North and giving birth to the Confederation has long granted him a place as one of the greatest prime ministers in Canada, but recent reformations and value changes sheds light on his not-so-great acts. Many critics urged for the removal of his figure and likeness from the public sphere, but due to his lasting positive influence and the remembrance of our past through statues, I firmly believe that John A. Macdonald’s name should remain in the public sphere.

Throughout the history of mankind, many notable people have come and past, their best ideas and contributions engraved in our brains and our society, and Macdonald is one of those visionaries and missionaries. There can be no denial of his part in founding Canada, from solidifying the notion of two official languages, to building and expanding the confederations, Macdonald is someone who deserves to go remembered. Macdonald believed that “[Canada is] a great country and shall become one of the greatest in the universe if we preserve it; [but] we shall sink into insignificance and adversity if we suffer it to be broken,” and held on to his beliefs with the National Policy to insist on a independent and free Canada, even while many are leaving for the US. It is safe to say that without him, Canada would not be the Canada today. The good that he did are irreplaceable by any other person from his era, but his mistakes are common in almost every other political opponent. Macdonald deserves to be remembered by not just those who can afford to learn history in the private sphere, but everyone who have the right to walk the streets. Removing his name and figure not only removes his contributions, but also an opportunity to connect with the past.

 

 

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/economic-canadian-american-relations/

DOL #2: CPR

To what extent did John A. McDonald’s decision to build the CPR influence Canada as seen now?

  • Historical Significance: 

Outline the focus of your inquiry and provide background knowledge. Why is this an important and significant question to ask about the past? Provide evidence from primary and secondary sources.

The CPR (Canadian Pacific Railway) was a transcontinental railway system that would connect the west with the more developed and populated east. It was promised by John A. MacDonald, our first prime minister, when he rose to power in 1867, leading to the entry of British Columbia into Confederation. The railway came under many critics’ attack, and the Pacific Scandal threw MacDonald off the seat of power. When MacDonald came back to power in 1878, he was determined to make the railway happen. The Canadian Pacific Railway company was incorporated in 1881, and construction finished late 1885. Soon, the first passenger train arrived transcontinental into Port Moody from Montreal in 1886.

Map of Canada with BC, Canada and the other provinces. Image from cpconnectingcanada.ca

The CPR is a huge operation at the beginning of Canada’s history, and in the process of making it happen, many mistakes and sacrifices were made. It is undeniable, however, that it profoundly changed the course of Canada and its people. By weighing the pros with the cons, we can judge the value of the CPR and MacDonald’s decision in retrospect.

  • Cause and Consequence:

Why did your researched events happen the way they did and what were the consequences?

  • Perspective

The first intentions of the railway were to prompt BC to join the Confederation and grow the feeble Canadian economy independent of the US (who refused all trade with Canada at the time). The two goals were certainly met, as BC joined the Confederation soon after the railway was promised with the condition that it must be built in a decade, and businesses sprouted all along the western provinces. The addition of British Columbia further diversified Canada both socially and environmentally and provided a place for people to settle. Canada’s increasing land mass supported its growth politically and economically too, gaining more voice as its assets increased. The railway also fueled new corporations to develop and flourish. The communities started from scratch to provide necessities of life. The new environments also demanded new industries different from the ones Canadians are used to. Fur trading companies became farming and logging ones and snowplows were replaced by farm forks. The west and the east could trade local goods, and everyone was happy – the people, who had the commodities they wanted, the companies, who lowered expenses in transport and increased sales, and the government, who sees increased nationalism and a better self-sustaining economy. The brand new Canadian settlements needed much, and the new revenues meant better economy. It is a positive influence on Canadian development as seen from the eyes of mainstream Canadians.

The Last Spike being laid by Donald A. Smith on Nov. 7, 1885. Image from Library and Archives Canada

There are more unintended and unthought of consequences of the CPR though. The railway was built on the 10 million hectares of land provided by the government, but one might ask: where did that land come from? To make way for the railway, thousands of indigenous people are forced to leave the land that they have resided on for many hundreds of years. MacDonald even resorted to using hunger to stave off the people, killing many with starvation. These inhumane acts reflect values then and even values now, when indigenous people are on many fronts not equal to non-indigenous Canadians. The Canadian “victory” over the indigenous may even have served to ridicule Louis Riel’s efforts to keep the Metis’ land. Discrimination had only grown with the CPR. Even now, those communities of indigenous people may remember how they lost their ancestral land because of the construction of a railway profiting white people.

Image Courtesy of The Globe and Mail; Indigenous people forced to leave

To the early Chinese in Canada, the CPR didn’t bring much hope at all. Forced to work in danger with very little pay, the Chinese workers often died on the job. The Canadians found that the Chinese can be paid very little, expected to work on hard jobs, and more of all be bullied around without care of their lives. Subsequently after completion of the railway, a head tax was introduced for Chinese immigrants, and they were denied the right to vote. The building of the CPR didn’t do much for the Chinese, who only suffered more because of the labour and discrimination. The history and culture of maltreatment for the Chinese and Asian minorities may have influenced as far as Canada’s treatment of the Japanese in WW2. Looking at the present society, few of the evidence from that period of maltreatment can be seen as apologies are made and history avoided. However, we need to remember that the same event can be great to one community, race or even country, but the back side of the story is often either untold or drown out in a sea of chants coming from the majority in the front rows.

It is important to mention that although John A. MacDonald did many things unacceptable by today’s standards, we are judging him from our own perspective. Many of his policies contained acceptance not found in his era. We shouldn’t blame him for his actions extensively, but to properly criticize his actions, we need to look at a different perspective from his own time.

  • Social Studies Inquiry Process

What conclusions can you reach about your question, based on the research you conducted?

Through an investigation into the influence of the CPR, it becomes evident that many actions, even ones that is celebrated by something as large as a nation, can have darker sides. While something may have tremendously positive influences, the negative influences could also be far-reaching and extensive, as is the case with the CPR. As all humans are equal, we cannot just shout “for the greater good” and only look at the big picture. It is necessary, especially in the case of multiple identities (Indigenous Canadian, etc.) to investigate every possible perspective to assess a fair picture of the consequences of an action. The negatives can be hard to find in a sea of praise, but it is just in fairytales that “all lived happily ever after” exist.


 

Sources:

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/canadian-pacific-railway/

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/national-policy/

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/when-canada-used-hunger-to-clear-the-west/article13316877/

https://www.library.ubc.ca/chineseinbc/railways.html

http://www.cpr.ca/en/about-cp-site/Documents/cp-history-for-students.pdf

Images are linked.

 

Document of Learning 1: Postnationalism

“There is no core identity, no mainstream in Canada. Those qualities are what make us the first postnational state.”

-Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (2015)

  1. Choose an event from Canada’s past or present (social, political, environmental, or economic) and describe/illustrate (show cause and effect) how this event influenced / influences all four of the quadrants. Provide images / primary source evidence where possible.
  2. Does your event represent a step towards creating and maintaining a coherent Canadian identity, or does it move Canada more clearly in the direction of Trudeau’s discussion of a “postnational” state?
  3. In your opinion, is there any value in trying to define a specific Canadian identity, or should we abandon this idea towards a more open and global idea of nationhood? Why?

 

One of the key events that has shaped Canadian identity and affects all aspects of our lives is the right to universal health care. Tommy Douglas (NDP) first proposed it as premier of Saskatchewan in 1947, urging for free basic hospital care. All of the provinces and territories soon followed, helping Canadians across the country live without fear of health issues regardless of their wealth. The medical program soon expanded and improved to include more treatments covered, leading to the Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act in 1957 and the Medical Care Act in 1966. This is a political event, but its far-reaching consequences are definitely affecting all four quadrants. This decision definitely affected the social aspect of Canadians, helping equalize people to make sure they have the same access to important social services. It is also an important step forward in making Canada the accepting, unbiased nation that it is now. It is a statement made by the government that symbolizes their determination to support all their citizens and provide them with the same fundamental rights regardless of poverty or social standing. On the economical side, the government’s decision to “reimburse, or cost share,

one-half of provincial and territorial costs for specified hospital and diagnostic services” will have an impact on the other expenses of the country. The free medical services are, after all, not cheap, knowing that the average household pays $11,320 per year in tax money. The money spent on providing care may be withdrawn from important funds, like ones set up for the environment. The Conservative party is not known for renewable energy and the like, so the health care funds may reduce environmental funding not supported by the government. Also, the fact that people won’t have to pay for healthcare will mean that a lot more people will use the system, increasing strain on the system and usage of medical supplies, creating more waste that may harm the environment.

This act has moved Canada closer as a nation by emphasizing to the world the values that Canadians are proud of. Even today, free universal health care is not the case in many countries in the world, and the fact that Canada is part of this group says something about our stand regarding human rights. From the women’s rights movements in 1929 to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982, Canada has shown itself to be a nation that embraces change to accept all races, genders or social classes. Canada’s decision to spend valuable funds on the universal health care system to provide access to a healthy life for everyone states its priorities to the world. At that time, not many countries would use big sums of money to help the poor, but we did, and that action at the time made millions of Canadians proud. It is actions like this, ones which distinguish Canada from the rest, that shapes Canadian identity, and I believe that everyone, whether then or now, would see us Canadians as open and tolerant people.

I firmly believe that we, as Canadians, should have a collective identity that overarches on the sea of different values and beliefs. It is only through this sense of being “Canadian” that we could be united as a nation and a country. Canadians in this country may have distinct values and beliefs, but just like how Americans are united by the idea of “freedom and ideas”, we should be people drawn together by something as well. This something, I think, is the strive for equality. As a nation, the Canadian identity is gender equality (LGBTQ + as well), immigration and refugee help, First Nations support, and multiculturalism. Regardless of whether the government is doing well to actualize those things, they are the things that Canadians care about and believe in. This is what makes Canada the nations that it is, huge ideas that support and protect the multitude of small, individual ideas, knowing that our differences can’t break us, but only unite us.

Cartier’s Speech – Quebec Conference, 1865

To many, Confederation is not a choice, but a force that we have been driven towards out of urgency. As we gather here today, we must think; will we be content as mere colonies existing side by side, or is it more in order to come together as one great nation? One of financial and cultural success, one of representation for all!

Many fear that this development will jeopardize the dignity and identity of these separate colonies, and feel it is best for those in need of support to flourish on and support themselves. However, the purpose of banding together and reconvening into one great nation is not to tear apart these separate identities, but to tie them together and share them with one another. Imagine a place where we are able to mutually understand one another, and respect one another, a time in which we may come together to support one another’s needs, and build off one another’s strengths.

We shall not follow that of our American brothers; we may not turn against one another in fight for the ultimate decision of power. We shall, instead distribute power, and bring our people together. We cannot be content with violence as a form of decision making. We must think toward what it right for all, what is best for the greater good.

Socials Final!

Socials is over, and how fast time flies by when you are having fun… To give you more of a visual, I have included notes in my PowerPoint that I presented in class on Wednesday. So when you click on the link, just click on notes on the bottom right hand corner and you will see an explanation of each slide, which is also kind of my script for the presentation, altered a bit.

Some helpful links you may find helpful in additional:

My Midterm blog post

Socials 9 learning outcomes

pdf of powerpoint without notes

if the PowerPoint link don’t work, click this pdf notes-and-ppt

 

-1780s, My Final Years in Life

Refer to this page if you don’t get what is happening or why I am Voltaire from the French Revolution.


Hear ye, hear ye! I am François-Marie Arouet, or Voltaire, a French writer and philosopher. Here I present “Free Thoughts on the Proceedings of the Monarchy!”…

I am writing this pamphlet in comment of the situation right now. Among all this debating and rhetoric, I want to remind you all of what I have said, that monarchy, is indeed, the best way of government for a country as large as France. It would be just too time consuming to fully consult the opinions of the people with what ways of communication we have, for instance. Quoting myself:

“I would rather obey a fine lion, much stronger than myself, than two hundred rats of my own species.” 

Heed not the rabble who scream revolution, they had not the best plan for you. Chaos and bloodshed are not a solution, don’t let them led you astray. This monarch does not speak for me, nor does all these poor and dumb men. I pray the King will confess all sins, at last, at last. Inspired by Samuel Seabury.  I see the injustice, clerical abuses, prejudice, and fanaticism in France, and don’t get me wrong, I am not saying our monarchs are doing just fine. They are not, as a matter of fact, as you readers may have noticed. The thing that we need to do now, is to try to break the barriers of superstition and let reason guide us into a world with better policies like the ones in England (English religious tolerance and freedom of speech). What we will have, in the end, is an enlightened monarchy, full of wise men and led by reason instead of traditions like what the Church had imposed us with.

My obstacle could be you, reading this paragraph. Don’t be persuaded by rats in our society, and if you are one of them yourself, think of the idea of a revolution against one of the most powerful nation in the world. Where will you get your guns, or would you settle for a fork? What comes after the revolution, do you think that all you farmers and bakers can honestly set up a society?

Towards this issue, I am doing what I could to pass my ideas on to more and more people. During my stay in the King’s court, he found that he is already enlightened, just too authoritarian. I encourage fellow writers to speak up, not to harshly, and to influence the court if not the King.

“Working to protect our rights and liberties”

In a recent question period, concerning bill c51, Steven Harper said, “police and security agencies are working to protect our rights and our liberties.” This contrasts somewhat with the Stonechild death. 17-year-old Neil Stonechild was handcuffed and put into the back of a police cruiser, his last words to friend Jason Roy were, “help me, they’re going to kill me.” Later that night (nov 25th 1990) Stonechild was found dead with hypothermia, by the side of the road outside Saskatoon shortly after being taken into custody. While there was no conviction, there was a later investigation into these so called “starlight tours” when cops take (usually aboriginal) people to the outskirts of cities and tell them to walk home, typically on cold nights. One man, Darrell Night survived a starlight tour and the two cops responsible were given eight months in prison. No further arrests have been made in the four recorded Saskatchewan freezing deaths.

 photo 20150521105345180-page-001_zpsfycbju4d.jpg

Talonsss: political narratives

Politics are not my strong suit. A bunch of men and women in suits discussing the future of our nation, making promises they can’t or won’t keep and calling each other idiots in polite terms? Why would I entrust our country to any of them? Sadly, I can’t just move to the woods or somewhere without government, that’s just the world we live in. And if I want anything to change I do have to vote. But how will I know who is actually telling the truth? I can’t, sadly. I can only make my best guess based on what I believe and who is really the lesser evil. The assignment was to blog about a viewpoint or “narrative” we strongly feel and then decide which party claims to be on track with that.

A narrative that I strongly support is the economic part of identity, specifically “sharing the wealth” and supporting small businesses. Not directly related but other parts that can fit are childcare, creating jobs, and sustainable economy, as in green energy. I feel these narratives because I, as an individual, value our environment and jobs can be created through green energy, such as the construction and maintenance of solar panels and wind turbines. In future I would like to own my own business so obviously I support an economy that supports small businesses. Going with that would be the taxation of huge corporate bigwigs and while I am sure they can find their own way around taxes, a small increase in their taxes means a lot more money for the government and hence, small businesses. Do I really need to explain why I think childcare should be cheaper? I would think that its obvious. It would be really beneficial for lower/middle class families especially single parents and those who work multiple jobs to have cheaper childcare.

After researching the parties narratives in comparison to the ones I discussed I made a table that looked somewhat like this:

Green NDP Conservative Liberal
Sustainable economy Yes Yes Yes No
Share the wealth No Yes No No
Support small businesses Yes Yes No No
Cheaper childcare Yes Yes Yes Yes
Create more jobs Yes Yes Yes No
Green energy Yes Yes No No
Economic equality for the lower and middle classes Yes Yes No Yes

This table does not show the whole story, these were from each parties “top two” narratives. It does come from the research of multiple people with different values so the information is unbiased and mostly accurate. From this table you would conclude that my views on economics coincide most with the NDP.

Keep in mind that this is just economic views, what I deemed most important. That was the assignment. I didn’t take into account the parties views on other narratives, environment or international identity or minority rights, so I could agree with a vastly different party than the NDP.

And then once we get past the party narratives I have to look at the leader of the party and see if I agree with their personal views, for instance I mostly agree with Green party values but Elizabeth May, the party leader, is pro-life (anti-abortion) and I dont know if I could willingly vote for someone with those views.

Phew, that was exhausting. Good thing I don’t vote for a few more years.